Environmental impact assessments (EIAs) are now compulsory. Any remaining doubt that may have lingered in this regard was laid to rest by the promulgation of Regulation No 1182 on 5 September 1997 by the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism under the Environment Conservation Act 1989 (Act 73 of 1989). The regulations have already had a wide-ranging and far-reaching effect. Under section 21 of the Act they provide for the identification of activities that may have a substantial detrimental effect on the environment. Schedules land 2 provide a list so comprehensive as to leave any human development or activities short of swatting a fly requiring an environmental impact assessment.