A new collector sewer allows for continuing development and also provides for informal housing in the area. A new collector sewer was required for the Swartkops Valley in Port Elizabeth, as the existing sewer was operating at full design capacity and showing severe signs of corrosion. Owing to continuing development in the area, it was also necessary to increase the sewer's capacity.
There is no standardised evaluation framework to assess pass rates in engineering on a national level. Monique Adams, Senior Divisional Human Resources Manager at Anglo American, is one of the few people who has a national view. In this article she descriptionbes the model that her department has developed to monitor their bursars. An engineering bursary scheme currently costs about R35 000 per student per academic year and it is obviously important to known what this investment is producing and to take steps, where necessary, to protect it. Each year the overall results for all Anglo and De Beers' bursary holders are analysed by university, discipline and race. This provides us with critical information about the progress of our students and highlights particular problems and successes. The analysis takes place in three phases: 1) calculating pass rates for a particular year, 2) calculating five-year averages, and 3) predicting output rates.
Keeping one step ahead of developments in the community water supply and sanitation sector in South Africa, and contributing to this development, is a challenging task. The Mvula Trust, set up in 1993 with this mission in mind, has met this challenge head on. After just over four years of intense activity, and with over 120 water supply projects completed, the Trust has gained a wealth of experience and has made a valuable contribution to both service delivery and policy development:
How one surveying firm converted to GPS and real-time kinematic technology and used the methods for staking out a remote mountainside housing site Surveying has become a high-tech discipline. Today we commonly use global positioning systems (GPS) for control networks and monitoring. However, many surveyors are still sceptical about its use for construction staking. There is legitimate concern over the heights or elevations returned by GPS receivers. We believe these can be managed with appropriate network design and project calibration.
A method of determining maximum depth of scour in river beds under existing conditions is descriptionbed with examples of the use of the method The Author emphasises that the method is based on a minimum of experimental results but publishes his theory in the hope that other workers will subject it to critical analysis in the light of their experience as a guide to its acceptability.