Recent advances related to landfill technology in South Africa require a controlled and well-managed landfill development environment Current legislation in South Africa, and indeed in many countries worldwide, requires that landfill developments are designed, constructed and operated to government-guided levels of sophistication. This country's commitment to achieving sustainable development should be set in the context of developing techniques for sustainable landfill practices.
An innovative process has been developed to reduce the conflict related to the siting of landfills In the past, the siting of waste disposal sites has been poorly co-ordinated. All too often, political or economic events have overtaken landfill site selection processes and they have had to be abandoned in spite of large outlays of time and resources. Inadequate attention has been paid to the overall land-use planning perspectives and to social and environmental justice issues. Procedural overlaps and anomalies have vexed developers, authorities and the public, causing delays, increased costs and stakeholder antagonism. Streamlining the landfill planning and site selection processes and initiating the public participation process very early provides a workable model to address the problems of the past and ensures low levels of conflict. Lombard & Associates, appointed by Durban Solid Waste (part of the Durban Metro Water Services) to manage the selection of new landfills in the Durban area, pioneered the participative 'windows' process now being applied in other exercises in South Africa.
Current legislation is moving towards polluters paying for the damage they cause. but the emphasis should still be on prevention The environment in South Africa is protected primarily through the enforcement of the Water Act, 1954 (Act 54 of 1956), the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act, 1965 (Act 45 of 1965) and the Environment Conservation Act, 1989 (Act 73 of 1989). Despite the enforcement of these Acts and the successful resolution of water pollution cases through admissions of guilt and negotiations outside the courts, the environment in South Africa has been deteriorating. In this context the application of the polluter pays principle has not discouraged polluters from polluting. The new South African water and environmental legislation and policy, however, reconciles economic and environmental objectives in the context of the polluter pays principle.
The SABS has been restructured to provide a more businesslike, cost-effective service that is focused on the needs of its customers. Although the SABS has been organised around disciplines since its inception in 1945, it will now concentrate on three core products: development and dissemination of standards, certification of products and systems, and the testing of commodities against standards.
This paper descriptionbes some of the work of the engineering department of the Imperial Military Railways during the first few months after the occupation of the Transvaal by British troops. The work descriptionbed is chiefly that of the repair and maintenance of the line east of Pretoria, a considerable portion of which was carried out under the supervision of George Bransby Williams, the author.
A technique for synthesizing flood hydrographs with the aid of a digital computer is descriptionbed. The method relies on prior preparation of storm input in the form of hydrographs appropriate to each of many elemental areas composing the problem catchment.
Ease of transport and erection made structural aluminium the best choice for an industrial building requiring an 18 m clear height A South African consulting firm was recently awarded a contract to supply and erect a unique factory structure in China. The project forms part of expansion taking place in the Conghua Economic and Technical Development District near the city of Guangzhou (close to Hong Kong). The structure is unusual in three ways. Firstly, it consists almost entirely of aluminium. The prefabricated structure comprises close to 17 t of structural aluminium. The cladding consists of 0,7 mm aluminium sheeting, bring the total amount of aluminium in the structure to around 25 t. Secondly, it has an unusual shape, utilising three intersecting arches, with the highest section of arches reaching 18 m.
On 5 December 1998 the Ceres Municipality Council, Tourist Bureau, Togryersmuseum and many others celebrated the 150th anniversary of the opening of the first Michell's Pass. A procession of horse riders and veteran cars was headed by Western Cape Minister Peter Marais and his charming wife, riding in a Cape cart behind two fine black horses. The cavalcade paused on the pass for the obligatory speeches before the Minister cut a ribbon stretched under an ornamental arch across one of the few remaining sections of the original Andrew Bain construction. The next stop was the Togryersmuseum in Ceres for iced Ceres fruit juices and canapes. Here there was an opportunity to introduce to the crowd the Institution's Reminiscences about Cape Mountain Passes book, which contains two articles on Michell's Pass. A copy was presented to Minister Marais, and copies were sold to those interested.
Investigations for the foundations for the new hospital at Tiervlei were descriptionbed. Atterberg limit tests on transported and residual soils showed that these could be distinguished with a high degree of probability using Casagrande's plasticity chart.