Designing structures with multiple functions effects savings on a variety of fronts Industry is an area of human activity in which each person and object involved has a precise role to play or a 'function'. By objects in the industrial environment we mean machinery, tools, services and utilities, buildings, raw materials, fuels, intermediate and finite products, waste, vehicles, etc. Even advertising signs and landscape have a role to play in industry.
Different role-players all have an important contribution to make in ensuring the success of projects We will be forgiven if we once believed that it was only here in South Africa that significant change would become the order of the 1990s. Virtually unbeknown to us in South Africa's geographic and political isolation during the penultimate decade of the 20th century, a number of pressure points had developed around the world. Our journey through the final decade of the millennium was destined to be a roller coaster ride designed and managed by these events.
What skills will civil engineers need to survive into the next century? A view from America. This is a great time to be a civil engineer. Future markets for engineering are strong and global demand is expected to remain high, although the price that the market will pay for engineering services is being pressed downward. To keep up with the new market, professional engineering services must be upgraded continuously by the addition of new skills and 'intellectual capital'. This article provides one perspective on the kind of skills engineers might need to adapt to future changes in society and the workplace.
An account is given of the general application of civil engineering plant under the changing circumstances of the post-war period in the construction and maintenance divisions of the Chief Civil Engineer's department. Recent streamlining in accounting procedures and costing analysis is dealt with in some detail and the department's progress in the matter of minimising and standardising types of equipment is recorded.
The Department of Water Affairs often has to build on inferior dam sites which present engineering problems requiring ingenuity for their solution. The paper deals with the factors that finally lead to the choice of a shaft spillway in the case of the Ebenezer Dam and descriptionbes how the site problems were solved by its use. After dealing with aspects of structural safety such as over-loading erosion, cavitation and vibration that have influenced the general acceptance of shaft spillways, the hydraulic elements of design are descriptionbed and their application is shown in the design of the funnel, the bend, the horizontal shaft and the stilling basin. The loading factors taken into consideration in the structural design, and the manner in which the concrete specification and the design were moulded to fit, the site conditions and loading requirements, are then covered. Finally the results of model tests carried out to confirm the discharge and flow conditions of the shaft spillway as designed are supplied.
The Author had thrown the lime-light on the industrialist's financial approach to the capital, taxation and operating costs of an engineering scheme. The principles he had enumerated represented the outlook of every concern in the country which paid taxes. Government departments and government controlled bodies were probably the only organizations to which the traditional engineering economics applied rigidly. The bulk of our engineers might be employed, directly or indirectly, by the state, but there was a constant migration and, as the Author had stated, the current industrial development of the country provided great scope for the civil engineer. The civil engineers who would succeed best in this industrial climate were those who were prepared to accept a new approach to economic problems and adapt their technical knowledge to the demands of their economy.