oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Railway tunnelling in South Africa
The Author's review of tunnelling work on the South African Railways since 1877 is of great interest. The introduction of mechanization in recent years had made it possible for tunnels to be built at a faster rate, and it deserves mention. Early tunnels were built almost entirely by hand, with a little mechanization in the form of wheelbarrows and, later, cocopans. Drilling was done by hand jumper and muck was loaded by pick and shovel. Mechanical aids were introduced gradually up to 1950, after which tunnelling became almost completely mechanized, due mainly to the Author's efforts.
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