The paper outlines the present organisation and co-ordination of all fields of hydrological research in the Union . . After brief reference to relevant aspects of the hydrological cycle leading up to an assessment of the water resources of the country, methods of decreasing losses and of improving the availability of usable supplies are discussed. These include chemical monolayers, windbreaks, the prevention of wasteful evapo-transpiration, weather modification and artificial recharge of groundwater. The water resources of the Union are adequate for a considerable expansion of development but intensive hydrological study is needed to enable suitable measures to be planned for optimum exploitation.
Major forces are at work in the world compelling humanity to look to the mountain areas for the development of water supplies for domestic, irrigation, industrial, hydro-electric and other purposes. This trend is manifesting itself in South Africa as well. In developing these supplies the engineer is beset with many difficulties not least amongst which is the extreme paucity of rainfall and hydrographic information. While strongly advocating extension of rain and stream gaugings to these areas the Author indicates a possible approach to meet the present deficiencies by returning to the hydrophysical or rainfall loss method advocated by Meyer in 1915.
Die mening word gehuldig dat indien die natuurlike aanvulling van 'n grondwatervoorraad minder as die onttrekking vir gebruik is, die tekort kunsmatig aangevul kan word deur boorgate of spreivelde indien die toestande geskik is. Oortollige water, wat nie die waterdraer sal verstop nie, en bergingsruimte moet egter beskikbaar wees. Dit word ook aangevoer dat die geohidrologiese toestande in Suid-Afrika sodanig is dat 'n groot aantal kleinskaalse skemas weI suksesvol aangepak kan word, maar dat grootskaalse skemas prakties feitlik onuitvoerbaar sal wees.
Inligting aangaande die werklike vorm van neerslae in opgaardamme is beperk. Die belangrikheid van hierdie aspek van opslikking en faktore wat dit benvloed, word bespreek. Gegewens omtrent 'n aantal damme word verstrek en die moontlike nut van gevolgtrekkings wat daarop gebaseer is word aangedui, sowel as die ontbrekende inligting wat in die toekoms aangevul behoort te word.
The paper reviews the methods used for flood analysis in dam design, their practical limitations and reliability, and the approximate relationship between the derived floods. An approach to the size of the design flood for optimum cost and safety is suggested.
The necessity for a rational approach to planning problems is discussed in the light of technological advances and the Author emphasizes the importance of scientific method in the collection, collation and interpretation of data for socio-economic factors upon which the solution to these problems is based.
The paper sets out to trace the origins of urban development, refers to the exploitation of natural resources and touches on some of the principal factors which cause the establishment of towns and determine their position. An indication is given of the relationship of these processes to regional planning.