oa Civil Engineer in South Africa - Establishing a higher-order survey system for outside control of the tunnel project

Volume 30, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 0009-7845



With complete triangulation cover, approximately 60 per cent of which is down to tertiary or third order density, South Africa prides itself on being one of the few countries in the world and the only one on the African continent with a fully integrated survey system. Though this national control ensures that cadastral, road, canal, dam basin and other major engineering surveys are performed on a common system, the quality of this network, especially the inherent scale, does not normally satisfy the standard of internal accuracy necessary for extensive intricate construction projects.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Article metrics loading...


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error