n Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering = Joernaal van die Suid-Afrikaanse Instituut van Siviele Ingenieurswese - Sanitation, public health and the environment : looking beyond current technologies : technical paper

Volume 43, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1021-2019



Where there are poor or non-existent sanitation facilities, human excreta are spread throughout the environment and people, soils and bodies of water are negatively affected. With rapid population growth, especially in urban areas, the situation cannot improve unless there is a significant change in the manner in which sanitation systems are chosen, designed and implemented. <p>While waterborne sanitation systems have been widely successful in controlling the transmission of excreta-related diseases in most cities of industrialised countries, they have also created severe damage to ecosystems and natural water resources where the wastewater is inadequately treated. VIP toilets may also not be suited to densely populated urban areas, due to the increased risk of environmental pollution. Other systems should rather be employed, and they should preferably operate well without piped water. <p>The paper describes urine diversion sanitation systems, which have been used successfully in many developing countries, including South Africa. This sanitation technology is suggested as an additional means of combating the health and environmental problems caused by inadequate sanitation in many areas of the country.

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