The purpose of this paper is to<ul>
<li>critically review current waste generation, composition and density measurement methods
<li>develop an appropriate measuring approach(es), and
<li>determine the factors that affect waste generation, composition and density in developing areas.</ul>
<br>The aim of developing an appropriate approach is to assist local authorities, waste managers and related interest groups towards accurate assessments and measurement of waste generated in developing areas in order to get the most appropriate and cost-effective waste management system.
<br>This paper covers the importance of waste generation quantification and the shortcomings of current waste generation measuring techniques. Factors that affect waste generation, composition and density are assessed.
<br>In this study, an innovative technique of measuring waste generation, composition and density, for denser and less dense waste was developed. Two hundred and eighty four samples from formal and informal households were subjected to detailed manual waste analysis and classification. Interviews were conducted from the sampled areas to get accurate demographic and related information.
<br>It is concluded that current waste generation measurement techniques should be evaluated. A calibrated plastic bag for less dense waste and a bucket for measuring dense waste directly from sampled households are recommended. It is further concluded that waste generation, composition and density are not affected by income, occupation of the household's income earners, duration of stay and origin of migration. Furthermore, seasonal variations have no effect on waste generation, composition and density of solid waste in the study areas.
This paper identifies commonly encountered international objectives for procurement and preferential procurement policies, presents a taxonomy of methods for implementing such policies, describes the framework for procurement in South Africa embodied in the Constitution and reviews aspects of this framework in the light of international best practice and the new standards published by Standards South Africa (a division of South African Bureau of Standards) for monitoring and implementing preferential procurement policies.
<br>The paper, using risk management techniques contained in AS/NZS 4360, analyses the commonly used international methods to implement preferential procurement polices and concludes that the methodology embraced in the Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act is the one which minimises the risk of internationally accepted objectives of the procurement itself being compromised. The paper identifies commonly encountered South African practices that are not in accordance with the provisions of the Act and proposes an approach to the evaluation of tenders that is consistent with the Act.
Extracted from text ... DISCUSSION
'The achievement of uniformity of straining during concrete cube testing in South Africa' - I Luker (Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, 45(1)??
The author offers an alternative approach to the compression test of specimens, suggesting that testing should be rather strain-rate controlled instead of applying a uniform loading rate as specified presently not only in SABS Method 863 (compressive strength of hardened concrete), EN 12390-3 (compressive strength of specimens by using a testing machine with force control [EN 12390-4]) and also in SABS EN 196-1 (Method of Testing Cement, Part 1: Determination ..