n Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering = Joernaal van die Suid-Afrikaanse Instituut van Siviele Ingenieurswese - Shear wave velocity of gold tailings : technical paper
|Article Title||Shear wave velocity of gold tailings : technical paper|
|© Publisher:||South African Institution Of Civil Engineering (SAICE)|
|Journal||Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering = Joernaal van die Suid-Afrikaanse Instituut van Siviele Ingenieurswese|
|Author||H.P.N. Chang and G. Heymann|
|Publication Date||Jan 2005|
|Pages||15 - 20|
|Keyword(s)||Bender elements, Gold tailings, Seismic methods, Shear wave velocity, Static liquefaction and Void ratio|
To evaluate the liquefaction potential of tailings impoundments, the in situ void ratio and the effective stresses are required. While stresses can be estimated with relative accuracy, the void ratio of tailings has proved difficult to obtain, especially below the water table. The development of in situ seismic techniques has presented new opportunities to determine the in situ void ratio of geomaterials. In addition, these seismic methods can be used to evaluate the liquefaction potential of gold tailings. However, the method currently relies on the shear wave velocity-void ratio relationships developed for sands, while gold tailings is essentially a silty material. This raises the question of the validity of such relationships for tailings material. A triaxial apparatus was modified to accommodate bender elements and the shear wave velocity of gold tailings was determined at various void ratios and effective stresses. The results show that there is a relationship between void ratio and the normalised shear wave velocity of gold tailings. They also show that the shear wave velocity for gold tailings is more sensitive to changes in effective stress than to changes in void ratio and that the shear wave velocity is virtually independent of the overconsolidation ratio. Application of the shear wave velocity-void ratio relationship in conjunction with critical state theory indicates that at the same shear wave velocity, gold tailings have a lower susceptibility to liquefaction than sands.
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