n Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering = Joernaal van die Suid-Afrikaanse Instituut van Siviele Ingenieurswese - Effect of stand size and income on residential water demand : technical paper

Volume 48, Issue 3
  • ISSN : 1021-2019



This study investigated the independent effects of stand size and stand value (as a surrogate for income) on residential water demand. The study was based on the measured AADD (annual average water demand) of approximately 195 000 domestic users in the Tshwane and Ekurhuleni metropolitan areas. To remove the interdependencies between stand size and value, the data was divided into categories with similar stand sizes and values. The data was analysed in two parts: the first to investigate AADD; and the second to investigate water demand elasticity. The study found that AADD increases with both increasing stand size and stand value, and that the current design guidelines overestimate the AADD for large stands. These results confirm the work by previous researchers such as Van Vuuren and Van Beek (1997) and Jacobs et al (2004). A new envelope for the minimum and maximum AADD as a function of stand size is proposed. The data did not show strong elasticity trends, but it was found that the typical values for the stand size elasticity vary between 0 and 0, 5, and for the stand value elasticity between 0 and 0, 6.

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