The fifties saw a vital phase of classical scholarship in South Africa, initiated and maintained by a generation of South African born scholars who studied in Europe, mostly at Oxford and Leiden. Back in South Africa they proceeded to establish a local tradition of classical scholarship. The Classical Association of South Africa, founded in 1956, and the proceedings of the association, the international journal, Acta Classica, are amongst their achievements. A founding member of this association, Charles (Charl) August van Rooy, passed away on Wednesday, 15th July 1998.
This article attempts to assess the value of ancient responses (testimonia) to the imagery in Greek lyric (= melic) poems. As such it offers a contribution to the history of the reception of the lyric texts, as well as to the interpretation of specific images.
Such an investigation is severely impeded by the fragmented state both of the lyric poems and of the testimonia on them. Questions of content and context arise in almost every instance. Even the identification of an image can be uncertain. The impact or effect of the imagery on the original target audiences cannot be reconstructed; the responses of the testimonia, all later than the poetry, are all we have.
Nevertheless, the examples discussed show that ancient critics have a limited interest in imagery per se, yet often offer useful and even essential information on content and context, and on occasion even provide a valid literary evaluation of an image.
It is argued that the expression in Hippolytos (especially that of the messenger speech) has a powerful erotic charge, that the presentation of Hippolytos resonates with suggestions of the sexuality he denies, and that this has a definite homosexual slant. This interpretation is seen to make sense of many difficult or rejected passages.
Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus 15-17 is often cited in discussions of Stoic views on evil. However, even though the central section of the Hymn to Zeus is devoted purely to a description of the actions and attitudes of the 'bad people', scholars have not succeeded in giving an adequate explanation of the relationship between this section and the rest of the hymn, which is more generally concerned with the praise of Zeus and his works. The reference to evil is seen to function as a theodicy and thus indirectly as a continuation of Zeus' praise. I would suggest, however, that the problem of evil, and not the praise of Zeus, is the central focus of the hymn : the ultimate goal of the poem is to reintegrate the κακοί (which indeed include most people) into Zeus' order.
Gaius' Institutes were designed to provide an introductory overview for students embarking on the study of Roman law - a function which, in its original form and in Justinian's adaptation, it has continued to perform to this day, as well as engaging the attentions of specialists. This study is directed towards one aspect of Gaius' pedagogical method : the manipulation of persons of discourse in the text, by means of which the gulf is bridged between teacher and student, adept and initiate, elder and junior. In reference to the study of the law as conducted in the text, first and second persons of discourse are combined so as to create the effect of a common undertaking. With reference to the operation of the law as described in the text, they are partly separated, but in such a way as to show writer and reader operating on equal terms within the legally regulated spheres of social and economic activity. In neither aspect of the text is the envisioned reader - presumably a very young man - isolated from either the intellectual or the practical activity of the writer and his peers.
This paper sets out to examine Livy's presentation of women as important factors in early Roman political development. After a general discussion of issues involved, it will first give a rapid survey of all references to Roman women in the first six books of his story of Rome from its beginnings. It will then briefly discuss the view of Roman prejudices about women that may be deduced from the known popularity of the work and will try to assess the degree to which Livy and his readership considered women to be part of the Roman socio-political fabric, that is, to what degree women were presented by him, and accepted by his readers, as 'insiders', as an essential part of Roman culture, as 'the familiar Other'.
Ammianus Marcellinus digresses at length on the career and character of the eunuch Eutherius, and such is his praise of Eutherius that it is generally agreed that he must have used him as one of his sources. A comparison of Ammianus' account of an alleged plot to assassinate Julian shortly after his revolt at Paris in 360 to Libanius' account of the same reveals that Eutherius has concealed his involvement in this plot. Furthermore, he has misrepresented his expulsion from Julian's domain back to the court of Constantius II as a result of this plot as a diplomatic mission. He remained in disgrace under Julian, but was restored to office when Jovian recalled many former officials under Constantius to court once more. His reputation as Julian's faithful praepositus cubiculi is undeserved.
In paragraph 12 of his Liber de Optimo Genere Interpretandi (Letter 57) Jerome used two images of which the meaning is not clear. In this article the author attempts to shed light on the interpretation of these images by examining the immediate context of paragraph 12 and the broader context of the letter as a whole. This will include an examination of Jerome's use of sarcasm and irony, as well as the historical background of his polemic with Rufinus. The two images are : 1. 'Oleum perdit et inpensas, qui bovem mittit ad ceroma', and 2. 'Haec non est illius culpa, cuius sub persona alius agit tragoediam, sed magistrorum eius, qui illum magna mercede nihil scire docuerunt'. The author comes to the conclusion that both images deal with the question of learning and that Jerome uses these images in order to cast doubt on Rufinus' erudition. With the first image he implies that Rufinus' parents had wasted their money in sending him to school and in the second image his teachers are blamed for his ignorance.
Due to administrative oversight, the programmatic synopsis instead of the abstract of Prof. J.R.D. Scourfield's paper was included in the Abstracts of Papers printed in the previous volume of Acta Classica (XL, 1997, 112).