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- Volume 44, Issue 1, 2001
Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa - Volume 44, Issue 1, 2001
Volumes & issues
Volume 44, Issue 1, 2001
The frontal face and 'you'. Narrative disjunction in early Greek poetry and painting' : chairperson's addressAuthor E.A. MackaySource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 5 –34 (2001)More Less
This paper presents a comparative exploration of what effect the disruption of the standard form narrative expression has on the reception process within an established traditional context, examining first the early Greek oral poetic tradition represented by Homeric epic. and then comparing the Athenian black-figure vase-painting tradition of the 6th century BC. The two phenomena to be examined are the narrator's apostrophe of a character in epic, which disrupts the normal flow or third-person narrative, and the frontal face in Attic black-figure vase-painting, which disrupts the normal representation of figures with profile heads.
Author J.E. AtkinsonSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 35 –52 (2001)More Less
Despite the contrasting political contexts in which epidemics struck societies in Classical Antiquity, ranging from the Athenian plague of 430 BC to the outbreaks of the Antonine age, Rosenberg's model of patterned responses to epidemics seems as applicable as it does to the case studies in modern history which he addressed. Neither secularism, nor scientific humanism, nor clinical medicine sufficed to calm the fears of ordinary people, and political leaders and authorities sought closure through religious rituals. Thus, indeed, epidemics acquired dramaturgic form.
Author Charlotte FrancisSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 53 –76 (2001)More Less
The narrative of the Metamorphoses is enlivened by the insertion of tales, with a variety of narrators. The purpose of this article is to examine the interweaving of narrators and inserted tales with the main narrative narrated by Lucius, the role of the storyteller and relationships with audiences, not least being that of the reader. This technique of various narrators within the text raises concepts such as 'tale within a tale' and the 'audience within an audience', which contribute to the work's narrative style. The presentation of the tales as a performance deserves consideration, as many tales are presented for specific situations. Patterns emerge in the introducing and ending of tales which contribute to the interweaving texture of the tales and main narrative. A significant aspect of the tales' presentation is the use of authenticating devices to make the tales within the text more credible. The narrative is carefully constructed to accommodate these aspects which culminate in a demonstration of the narrative's full capacity.
Author John HiltonSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 77 –86 (2001)More Less
There are strong but previously unnoticed intertextual links between the dream of Charikles in Heliodorus (4.14.2), the portent of the eagle in Achilles Tatius (2.12.1-3), and the dream of Penelope in Homer (Od. 19.535-69). The allusion to Achilles Tatius' Leukippe and Kleitophon may have alerted Heliodorus ' readers to the approach of an important turning-point in the plot, but it is the Homeric link that is the primary focus. The dream of Penelope provides moral under-pinning for marriage in the Aithiopika and helps to underline the complex ironies in Heliodorus' narrative at this crucial turning-point in the plot.
Author Michael LambertSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 87 –103 (2001)More Less
Modern scholars such as Davies, Griffiths and Burton, influenced by feminist literary criticism, have argued that Theocritus' Idyll 15 is an exploration of the experience and attitudes of two Syracusan women at an Alexandrian version of the Adonia. In this paper, I argue that Theocritus, as a male poet inheriting, from comedy and mime, a tradition of representing women at religious festivals, does not give us the women's perspective, but constructs a parody of women's perspectives of a religious festival, which extends to the hymn performed at the Adonia as well, perhaps for the entertainment of his cultured audience. In short, Theocritus sends up the women's superficial religiosity, rather than uses the poem as a means to express genuine female religious experience. It is also suggested that Theocritus, acutely aware of the cultural tensions generated by the Ptolemies' flirtation with Egyptian cultural practices, does not offend Arsinoe with his parody, but attempts to be as subtle and diplomatic as possible.
Author J.A. MaritzSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 105 –125 (2001)More Less
The standard iconography for the personification of Africa in Roman art was the figure of a woman wearing as headdress the schalp of an elephant. The elephant-scalp had already been used, with portraits, on coins, gems and furniture attachments by the Ptolemaic, Seleucid and Bactrian kings. Its first use for the personification of Africa has been dated variously to the early 4th century BC, Agathocles of Sicily, Pompey the Great, Hiarbus in Numidia or later 'African' kings. This paper discusses these claims, and concludes that the type was not in use before the 1st century BC. It was not an indigenous 'African' type. Its use by indigenous 'African' kings in the 1st century BC was linked to Roman use, often by the Pompeian party, and a Roman concept of the territory. The interpretation of this image as Roman Africa is confirmed by the details of dress, facial features and attributes. From the time of Hadrian onwards, the presentation of 'Africa' as one of a series, in an attitude similar to, and in a subordinate position taken by, other provinces, is again an indication that the image of Africa is a Rome-centered one, and correlates with the iconography in other media and in literature.
Author C.W. MarshallSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 127 –136 (2001)More Less
The silent attendants who accompany the queen throughout Euripides' Hecuba are costumed in peploi, and use their dress pins in the blinding of Polymestor. This single visual detail provides an opportunity for Euripides to create multiple responses in his audience. Sexual associations of the costume emphasize the vulnerability of the women, and provide echoes of the baring of Polyxena's breast and the description of the sack of Troy. This costuming decision evokes associations of Greek identity, anachronism in the theatre, and the nascent threat of female violence.
Author M.R. MezzabottaSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 137 –152 (2001)More Less
This article deals with the animal therapies in Cato, De Agricultura, in an attempt to gauge the level of Roman veterinary care in the 2nd century BC, the earliest period documented in our literary sources. This aspect of Cato's work, until now neglected or treated in a cursory fashion, is discussed in its various facets: its characteristics, magical aspects, medicinal substances and preventive measures. In this way the article also contributes to the emerging field of ethnoveterinary research.
Author A.T. NiceSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 153 –166 (2001)More Less
At the end of the first book of Cicero's De Divinalione. Quintus remarks that, even though he believes in divination, there are some diviners whom he would not trust to give accurate predictions. These comments are followed by a quotation from Ennius' Telamo. Most modern scholars have assumed, therefore, that the previous lines also contain an echo, if not a paraphrase of Ennius' work. This supposition does not seem to be supported by the language or style employed by Cicero. The lines should rather be understood as embodying the parochial view that élite Romans had towards forms of divination that were foreign, rustic or mercenary and not practised by the Roman state.
Author Daniel OgdenSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 167 –195 (2001)More Less
The various Greek terms for 'oracles of the dead' were synonymous. In extant sources they are applied principally to four sites: the oracles at Heracleia Pontica on the Black Sea, Tainaron on Mani, the Acheron in Thesprotia and Avernus in Campania. The evidence for the precise locations and configurations of these oracles is reviewed, together with the traditions of consultations at them. The oracles at Heracleia and Tainaron were located in tooled caves, and their remains can be identified today. The oracles at the Acheron and Avernus, however, were probably based in mere lakeside precincts. Ghosts were experienced at the oracles by means of incubation and dreaming. The meagre evidence for the powers that presided at the oracles is also considered, as is that for their staff's. Finally, it is asked whether there were any further oracles the dead in the Greek world.
Author Johan C. ThornSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 197 –219 (2001)More Less
This article re-examines the literary relationship between the Stoics Cleanthes and Chrysippus and the Pythagorean Golden Verses. Contrary to scholarly consensus, I shall argue that the two Stoics show literary dependence on the Pythagorean poem, and not vice versa. Previous scholars have dated the Golden Verses sometime in the Imperial period and they consequently either argue for direct dependence of the Golden Verses on the Stoic authors, or for a shared dependence on a hypothetical third text. If one examines the literary relationships between the various texts critically, while bracketing the chronological problem, it becomes evident that the far more traditional Pythagorean poem must have been used by the more sophisticated Stoic authors, instead of the author of the former having simplified his Stoic sources. This conclusion has important implications for the value of the Golden Verses within the Pythagorean tradition.
Author Jr. John E. ThornburnSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 221 –236 (2001)More Less
In this paper, I contend that major characters in the Ion, especially Apollo and Creusa, behave like playwrights. Apollo attempts to produce an action with a happy ending, while the Athenians attempt to produce a 'vengeance drama', which fails thanks to a salvific bird. When the 'vengeance drama' fails, a 'suppliant drama' unexpectedly breaks out, only to be checked by the Pythia. Finally, a third drama threatens to erupt as Ion is on the verge of becoming a theomachos. Athena, however, resolves this situation. The failure or resolution of these three 'micro-dramas' is brought about by Apollo, who sends a bird, the Pythia, and Athena, to redirect the drama towards his intended happy ending. Therefore, I suggest that the ending of the lon holds a unique place in Greek drama since it arguably has what could be construed as a triple deus.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 243 –245 (2001)More Less
Author D. WardleSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 247 –251 (2001)More Less
For over a century there was only one usable text of Valerius Maximus, the Teubner edited by Kempf, but its deficiencies were obvious. The last three years have seen two significant advances in two new editions of Valerius, each of a distinct character: Briscoe's Teubner is conservative and based on a thorough investigation of manuscript and a re-evaluation of the tradition, while Shackleton-Bailey's Loeb is far more adventurous, admitting conjectures where Briscoe resorts to the obelus.
Dioscorides. De materia medica, Tessa A. Osbaldeston, a new English translation, with Introductory Notes by R.P. Wood : book reviewSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 253 –257 (2001)More Less
The earliest herbals, dealing with plants and their human use, originated from Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and China. Theophrastus of Lesbos, an associate of Aristotle, was the earliest systematic writer on botany in Europe, and probably drew on the work of a contemporary, Diocles of Carystus.
Science, Folklore and Ideology. Studies in the Life Sciences in Ancient Greece, G.E.R. Lloyd : book reviewSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44, pp 257 –258 (2001)More Less
Magic, Reason and Experience. Studies in the Origins and Development of Greek Science, G.E.R. Lloyd : book reviewSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 44 (2001)More Less
This is the paperback imprint of the 1979 edition. From a thoroughly modernistic paradigm of science, Lloyd examines the Greek authors between the 6th and the 4th century BCE. Scientific inquiry, for him, centres around the notion of a specific type of argumentation (reason), as well as empirical research (experience).