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- Volume 51, Issue 1, 2008
Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa - Volume 51, Issue 1, 2008
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Volume 51, Issue 1, 2008
Author Jo-Marie ClaassenSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp IX –XII (2008)More Less
Pieter Jacobus Conradie is one of the few Afrikaans-speaking male South African Classicists who came to the discipline because of love for the Classics and not because of a calling to the ministry. That is, he did not discover Greek at university when starting theological studies, but was already inspired at school by his Latin teacher to a life-long love affair with the ancient world. It was during Piet's stint at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands that this love affair found a new direction: Greek mythology as it was told and retold in dramatic form, not only by the ancients, but as it still is today, and even in modern African theatre.
Author P.R. BosmanSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 1 –20 (2008)More Less
The ancient Cynics rejected traditional religion, themselves on first appearances endorsing either atheism or agnosticism. But their criticism may also have stemmed from a radical monotheism as voiced by Antisthenes. After briefly discussing imperial Cynics and their views on religion, the article argues that the 4th letter of Pseudo-Heraclitus and the Geneva Papyrus inv. 271, Cynic texts from the Early Empire, are not contrary to the essentials of the philosophy and may represent late Hellenistic forms of the Antisthenic tradition in portraying Cynic-type sages mediating between humankind and the God of nature.
Author Clive ChandlerSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 21 –30 (2008)More Less
Dio Oration 53 presents certain problems. First it does not appear to be an altogether elegant or successful encomium of Homer (in comparison with examples available in other authors), and second the speech itself seems to comprise two unrelated halves. Closer examination, however, reveals that Dio is actually presenting an exercise in epideictic invention, and identifying innovative strategies for praising Homer from the very attacks of the poet's most notorious critic, Plato. Dio uses arbitration as a device to explore ways in which he can settle the ancient dispute between Plato and Homer. The second half of the speech, which at first might appear to contain a haphazard catalogue of facts and observations designed to rehabilitate the poet, is actually an exploration of how Plato's criticisms can be gently countered within the new social and geopolitical environment represented by Dio's own era.
Author Kathleen M. ColemanSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 31 –46 (2008)More Less
A letter of Hadrian to the magistrates, council, and people of Aphrodisias (SEG 50.1096) has been interpreted as evidence that nominees for the high priesthood became reluctant to assume the office, when the traditional liturgy of sponsoring gladiatorial shows was replaced by a financial contribution towards the building of an aqueduct. This article proposes that, instead, the nominees' reluctance was caused by the burden of providing gladiators, and that the alternative of contributing to the aqueduct was intended as a more attractive option to boost the pool of available candidates.
Author Johann CookSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 47 –56 (2008)More Less
This article deals with the so-called Judas 'Gospel'. It demonstrates that this is, broadly speaking, a Gnostic writing, even though it is difficult to define the concept of 'Gnosticism'. It commences by outlining the intricate history of the find, moves on to the transmission history of this Coptic writing. It focuses on the composition of the 'Gospel' and demonstrates that it was fundamentally influenced by Jewish cosmological thought.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 57 –75 (2008)More Less
In Aeschylus's Agamemnon the representation of Cassandra recalls Iphigenia and contrasts with Clytemnestra. The uneasy relationship between Cassandra and Apollo seems to be an Aeschylean innovation. Cassandra's betrayal and rejection of the god reveals problems about her own position as Virgin Bride and Sacrificial Virgin. Aeschylus links her to two husbands, a divine one and a mortal one, Apollo and Agamemnon. Through use of bridal imagery and language one may read bridal overtones into the scene of Cassandra's arrival and may also be forgiven for confusing, at first, the identity of her spouse. Cassandra is not just a prophetess and unwilling bride of Apollo; she is also a foreign woman, a slave and a concubine - the war trophy of Agamemnon. As illegitimate bride to the victorious king, her virginal status is called into question. Wohl insists on allying Cassandra with other virgins of tragedy, such as Iphigenia and Iole, while the text itself occludes her status as she oscillates between virgin, concubine and legitimate wife in her language and behaviour. This article proposes that the prophetess functions as a feminine corrective for the problematic aspects of the other feminine figures in this play, notably Iphigenia, unwilling Bride of Death and Clytemnestra, Bad Wife and murderess of Agamemnon.
Author Richard EvansSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 77 –90 (2008)More Less
The triumph of Gaius Marius over the Germanic tribes in 102/101 BC is rightly ascribed to his employment of astute tactics. At Aquae Sextiae, however, that victory was based on extensive planning, not only in southern Gaul where Marius was stationed with his army, but also across the Pyrenees in northern Iberia. M. Marius is credited with a proconsulship in Hispania Ulterior, but an analysis of the ancient literature allows for his transferral to Hispania Citerior at precisely the time his brother was in command further north. Cooperation between the two, which ensured success on the battlefield, is argued below. And also suggested here is that in both regions the Marii extended their family patronage to native communities, enhancing their political prominence and prestige among the Roman élite.
Author William J. HendersonSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 91 –116 (2008)More Less
Palladas has long been recognised as an important exponent of the epigram. His particular brand of epigram is characterised by strong personal views and a sharply critical tone that are more to be expected in iambic than in epigrammatic verse. There are clear indications that he deliberately mixed the two genres, thereby extending the themes, language and function of the traditional epigram. This article explores the nature and scope of Palladas's invective in the epigrams by close analysis of the language.
Author Jean-Michel HullsSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 117 –124 (2008)More Less
Ammianus describes the Caesar Gallus at 14.1.10 as 'raising the standards of his obstinacy'. The unusual phrase is framed by a double allusion to Virgil's Aeneid and must be a referene to a description of the emperor Domitian at Silvae 4.2. Whereas Ammianus's normal practice in alluding to Statius is to use him simply as a repository of arresting phraseology, here he makes a more pronounced political point through intertextual allusion. Gallus is frequently compared to Domitian throughout Book 14 of Ammianus's history; here the comparison is used to illustrate how Gallus is rather less effective a tyrant than his predecessor. A subtle allusion thus foreshadows the Caesar's downfall.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 125 –144 (2008)More Less
The title of William Golding's last novel, The Double Tongue (1995), alludes to the notorious ambiguity of the Delphic oracle; the novel explicitly draws on Euripides's tragicomedy Ion as hypotext. Not only is the eponymous character of Euripides's play clearly adapted by Golding, but Golding's narrator and main character, Arieka, can be regarded as a conflation of two Euripidean characters, Kreousa and the Priestess. In both works, Apollo plays a dominant role extra scaenam as divine manipulator of human action. In the Ion, he literally rapes Kreousa; in The Double Tongue, he metaphorically rapes Arieka by forcibly impregnating her with the seed of oracular truth. In this article, Genette's theory of hypertextualité is employed to help us understand the relationship between Euripides and Golding. After exploring Golding's strategies for contextualising an historical novel, I examine his adaptation of the Euripidean hypotext in terms of setting, plot, characterisation and theme.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 145 –161 (2008)More Less
The paper argues that the title 'Augustus' as used by Tacitus is implicitly associated with the growing despotism introduced after Actium, that Tacitus took this term to represent or to imply the whole process by which the Republic was finally destroyed and the Empire came into being. It further maintains that Tacitus makes his reservations about the new political order vested in the emperor clear by carefully and consistently crafting circumstances of doubt to surround the use of the title Augustus. This focus on individual power is identified by Tacitus as one of the fundamental changes introduced by Augustus after taking political control. An analysis of how Tacitus uses the reference to 'Augustus' gives some indication of his assessment of the new dispensation. Tacitus subsequently expects the reader to test this subversive construct against the raison d'être for the Empire, namely the establishment of a lasting peace, or failure thereof.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 163 –185 (2008)More Less
Andromache is one of the noblest and most sorrowful characters associated with the Trojan war. In ancient and modern literature she is famed for conjugal love, fidelity and loyalty. She is represented as loving wife and mother, mourning widow and, later, captive, slave and concubine, everlastingly linked with her past as Hector's wife in the great days of Troy. This paper examines the way in which the Roman tragedian, Seneca, refashioned the Andromache of the Greek and Latin poets and how his representation subsequently, together with earlier depictions, impacted on her portrayal in French literature, particularly Robert Garnier's La Troade (1581), Sallebray's La Troade (1640) and Racine's Andromaque (1667).
Author David WardleSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 187 –191 (2008)More Less
In this note I attempt to supplement my recent discussion of the treatment by Suetonius of the death of the emperor Augustus in which I argued that the biographer carefully constructed an account of a perfect imperial death. I shall first consider an aspect that escaped my first treatment and then consider the contribution made in another recent study of death to which I did not have access in 2006, both of which relate to the presentation of the repentina mors in Latin sources. Lastly, I shall return to the notion of theatricality and acting that has played a central role in most interpretations of Augustus's last words to his friends to reassert the point that in the interpretation of Augustus's actions that Suetonius follows, based on Stoic ideas, there is no room for the notion of insincerity.
The Value of Victory in Pindar's Odes. Gnomai, Cosmology and the Role of the Poet, Hanna Boeke : book reviewAuthor J.H. BarkhuizenSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 193 –196 (2008)More Less
According to Boeke the aim of this study is to investigate the cosmological context of Pindar's victory odes, and its importance for their encomiastic purpose, from two angles. Firstly, the gnomai which punctuate the epinicia at regular intervals are used as the basis for an overview of the main ideas about the gods and man's relationship to the divine, the human condition and man in society. Secondly, three epinicia, Olympian 12, Isthmian 4 and Olympian 13 are analysed to obtain a closer view of how certain aspects of the cosmology are applied to the sometimes complex circumstances of a specific victor. These analyses are complemented by an investigation into the role of the poet in mediating cosmological promises (p. 1).
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 196 –202 (2008)More Less
In die 170s n.C. het die Romeinse keiser Marcus Aurelius twaalf 'boeke' van morele aforismes in Grieks neergepen. Hierdie sogenaamde Meditasies bied 'n uitdaging aan die vertaler weens die onewe aard van die materiaal - soms staccato, soms ietwat warrig; soms filosofies-teoreties, dan weer prakties.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 202 –207 (2008)More Less
The Classical Presences series of which this volume is part, aims to bring 'the latest scholarship to bear on the contexts, theory, and practice' of the use and abuse of the 'texts, images, and material culture of ancient Greece and Rome' in attempts 'to appropriate the past in order to authenticate the present'. Lorna Hardwick is the doyenne of Classical Reception Studies in the UK. She is Professor of Classical Studies at the Open University and Director of the Reception of Classical Texts and Images Research Project. Together with the Project Officer, Carol Gillespie, who is her co-editor here, she has organised a number of conferences in this fastest growing area of Classical Studies. This book collects the papers of one of their conferences, Classics in Post-Colonial Worlds, which took place in 2004.
Author John HiltonSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 207 –217 (2008)More Less
The collection is analytical and critical in its approach to classical material and reflects what the editors call a 'democratic turn' (p. 3) in the field: the questioning of the cultural hegemony of Classics, the tracing of the extension of the subject into less privileged sectors of society, and the inclusion of popular culture within its ambit.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 218 –220 (2008)More Less
Paul Murgatroyd's book evolved out of his course work on mythology at MacMasters University. It reads as a sourcebook and functions as a useful reference work. Each chapter concentrates on an aspect of mythical monsters, based on a primary text or texts, which the author then translates and discusses. It is aimed at both the layman and the classical scholar and thus reads extremely well. Murgatroyd focusses exclusively on the literary aspects of the primary texts and does not seek to interpret the nature of the beasts from the levels of the symbolic or psychoanalytic. Thus, meaning is not sought in the Monsters or their slayers themselves, but in how the ancient authors depict them. The author has identified the need for this approach, complementing the abundant body of literature that does deal with myth on the levels of the psychoanalytic, the anthropological and the symbolic.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 220 –223 (2008)More Less
This volume forms part of Blackwell's very successful Companions to the Ancient World series with the aim to provide 'sophisticated and authoritative overviews' of a period, topic, genre or author. According to its editor this companion to Catullus was intended as a reference work, but also for 'original insights' into the subject matter. The volume does indeed give an excellent overview of the state of Catullan scholarship reflecting the quality of work being done on this difficult author. Individual chapters have an own bibliography.
Cicero on Divination : De Divinatione Book. Translated with an Introduction and Historical Commentary. Clarendon Ancient History Series, David Wardle : book reviewAuthor Hans-Friedrich MuellerSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 51, pp 223 –227 (2008)More Less
Cicero's dialogue De Divinatione offers two views of divination through the single lens of Greek philosophy. In the first book, Cicero's brother Quintus offers a cautious defence. Quintus grounds belief in the efficacy of divination, on the one hand, in Stoic doctrine and, on the other, in exempla he finds in the literary and historiographical traditions of both Greece and Rome.