This paper discusses how to identify so-called 'periphrastic' constructions in Ancient Greek. I characterise verbal periphrasis as a prototypically organised category, with central or 'prototypical' members and more peripheral ones. By applying a number of generally accepted criteria of periphrasticity to a corpus of examples, I argue that we can distinguish between four groups of constructions considered periphrastic in the secondary literature.
On the basis of the episode in which Habrocomes puts in to Italy at Nuceria (καταίρει ... εϊς Νονκέριον τής 'Ιταλίας, Xen. Eph. 5.8.1), this article argues that Xenophon of Ephesus was writing between the late Flavian and early Antonine age, after it became known that the harbours at Pompeii and Stabiae had been destroyed in the eruption of AD 79 and before the rehabilitation of Stabiae became common knowledge.
The first emperor's name is invoked more often by Ovid than by any other poet of the Augustan age. For this reason alone he might justly be called the most Augustan of all the poets. Yet 'Augustus' appears surprisingly rarely in his large corpus. 'Caesar', the cognomen borne by Julius Caesar's descendants, whether or not they became the monarch, is the name preferred most persistently by Ovid when addressing or alluding to Augustus. When modern commentators refer to the ruler portrayed in Ovid's poetry, we usually call him Augustus or Octavian, even when Ovid has not. Such a convention might serve to obfuscate or conceal an interpretive strategy on the part of the poet. This paper will examine 'Caesar' and 'Augustus' in the Fasti, arguably Ovid's most political treatise, in an attempt to detect a rationale behind the poet's choice of name for the ruler in his Julian calendar.
Not only is Sat. 2.8 Horace's final satire, but, dated to around 30 BCE, it was published at a watershed moment in Roman, and indeed world, politics - the aftermath of the Battle of Actium. This article argues that both the poem's literary position as Horace's ultimate satire, and its chronological position at the end of an epoch are significant for our understanding of it. Sat. 2.8 reviews and reflects not only on much of Horace's prior writing, but also on the preceding ten to fifteen years of civil war. It is suggested that issues of defeat and death (as well as victory and vengeance), not often considered relevant for this 'comedy of manners', provide a powerful subtext to the satire, and that some of the figures that appear at the banquet described in Sat. 2.8 are ghosts from the remote and, in some cases, recent past.
The structure of Vergil's Eclogues has been much discussed and various models have been proposed to describe the different ways in which the poems are linked to each other. Two general types of models have been proposed. That of the concentric or recessive panel is well known, but somewhat deficient in that it ignores the inner dynamism of the collection. Models that take these dynamic aspects into account do so at the cost of some of the advantages of considering the concentric panel. This article proposes a new model to describe the structure of Vergil's Eclogues, based on a synthesis of existing models and relevant criticism, one that not only describes the simple thematic correspondences between individual poems, or plots the development of themes through the collection, but also attempts to express the different levels of closeness of correspondence between individual poems and groups of poems in the collection.
Clues in Ovid's work anticipate a certain kind of reading, even imply warnings against credulousness and metaphysical earnestness, and are perhaps well applied to our reading of him. Such clues in the parables of failure to recognise and misreadings of signs and the handling of philosophical material in the Metamorphoses are notably available in the Theban episodes and Pythagoras' speech. Ovid's irony is the effect of the poet's conception of the ambiguous status of appearances. Ovid tests and plays with the relationship between logos and imago and that of discourse and imagination to philosophical truth in the Metamorphoses, where knowing is set against innocence, rather than truth against untruth. Ovid's 'empty discourses' parody philosophy in using its topics while seeking no transformation in the audience, which was the aim of the properly philosophical discourse in Antiquity.
The Roman road-system (including urban street systems) is one of the most famous features of the Roman Empire. In cities, especially the older and smaller ones such as Pompeii, streets were narrower and not always suitable for (wheeled) two-way traffic or (wheeled) traffic at all; in later Hippodamic coloniae - as found in Western Europe like Xanten and Trier - streets were wide enough to cope with traffic. Local governments tried to keep traffic flow under control by means of legislation and creating fixed traffic circulation, including zigzag and parallel routes, and routes around the forum. The forum itself was never accessible for wheeled traffic, only for pedestrians.
Here Cupid, appearing in a famous vision to the poet, has just stated that he can justify and defend the poet's carmen (the Ars); he then goes on to say that he cannot do the same for his (famously mysterious) error. The problem here is line 74: the combination of needing to understand te ipsum as the object of dicere and the oddness of the phrase a culpa ..
Until now, I, like other classical scholars, believed that a national Classical Association of South Africa (CASA) was founded for the first time in 1927. However, new evidence requires that we backdate the existence of CASA, in some form at least, by twenty years, to mid-1908.
With Syracuse in Antiquity Richard J. Evans not only offers his readers a comprehensive account of - as the title announces - the history and topography of this Mediterranean metropolis but also succeeds in painting a vivid picture of the city's monumental townscape as a historical setting. The book's six chapters effectively fall into two parts: chapters one to three ('Urban Space', 'Chore' and 'Temples and Theatres') focus on topography in the wider sense, while chapters four to six ('The Four Great Sieges of Syracuse', 'Imperial Designs' and 'A City in the Roman Empire') deal with the history of events involving the city from the time of the Athenian expedition to the early Imperial period.
Met sy boek, Vir Griekse Fluite, stel W.J. Henderson sy navorsing in verband met die vroeg-Griekse liriese poësie wat reeds in 2004 met die publikasie van Op Griekse Lier (Protea Boekhuis) begin is, verder bekend. In die boek onder bespreking gaan dit oor die vertaling in Afrikaans en bespreking van 13 oud-Griekse elegiese digters en 'n enkele anonieme elegie. Die titel van die boek en die tipografiese ontwerp van die omslag gee reeds 'n aanduiding van waaroor hierdie werk handel.
Volk's unpretentious contribution to Blackwell's well-known series of Introductions is a tour-de-force of apparent simplicity veiling profound scholarship and thorough familiarity with current trends in Ovidian scholarship, engagingly presented.