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- Volume 23, Issue 1, 2013
Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug - Volume 23, Issue 1, 2013
Volume 23, Issue 1, 2013
Message from the NACA President : introducing the Journal's new editors-in-chief, and reflections on NACA's roleAuthor Kirsty LangermanSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 23 (2013)More Less
Let's start with the exciting news. NACA's Clean Air Journal has a new trio at the helm: Dr Caradee Wright, Dr Rebecca Garland and Dr Gregor Feig (they usually list their names in alphabetical order, but I thought I'd list ladies first for a change). The website of the Clean Air Journal is already live (www.cleanairjournal.org.za); the editorial advisory board has been re-constituted; and there are great plans to increase the number of articles published and get the Journal accredited. I hope that you will be reading more about the vision and plans of the new editors-in-chief on this page in future issues. And please submit your article for publication!
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 23, pp 3 –6 (2013)More Less
Atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, which may be present in the gaseous phase and adsorbed onto the surface of aerosol particles. A novel portable miniature denuder consisting of two multi-channel silicone rubber traps separated by a quartz fibre filter has been developed for such applications. It allows for the concentration of SVOCs in each phase to be determined, which is important for human health risk assessments. The overall particle transmission efficiency through the denuder was found to be 92 ± 4% for particles between 16 and 320 nm. SVOCs in the traps (gas phase) or on the filter (particle phase) are analysed by GC-MS, or by GCxGC-MS for enhanced separation capability. This enhances detection limits and allows for lower sampling flow rates and shorter sampling times. These denuders have been applied in studies involving the monitoring of emissions from domestic fires, vehicles and underground mine diesel engines.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 23, pp 7 –10 (2013)More Less
Before 2005, air quality measurements in South Africa were mainly performed by industries for compliance monitoring. These data sets were not generally available in the public domain and in most cases not scrutinised by peer reviewing. Other atmospheric studies have mainly been limited to short-term intensive campaigns such as SAFARI-92 and SAFARI 2000, or long-term campaigns with less comprehensive sets of instrumentation. The Cape Point Global Atmospheric Watch station is the most comprehensive long-term station in South Africa. However, the Cape Point GAW station is not regionally representative, since it is mostly influenced by marine background.
The comparability of modelled concentrations using alternative meteorological datasets : a case study of SO dispersion from a large stationary sourceSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 23, pp 11 –14 (2013)More Less
The Department of Environment Affairs (DEA) recently (December 2012) published, for public comment, guidelines for regulatory air quality modelling, including guidance on modelling input requirements, and protocols and procedures to be followed to ensure comparability of results. Due to the relative scarcity of site- representative meteorology, the proposed Regulations propose mainly qualitative criteria for the acceptable use of alternative meteorology, that is meteorology representative of the site but not local to it. Modellers are also not required to validate their modelling but are required to use ambient air quality measurements to evaluate modelling results but only if these measurements are available. We explore the comparability in modelled concentrations when using different sets of surface and upper air data, using a case study of SO2 emissions from a large stationary source (an oil refinery), and compare AERMOD modelled concentrations against monitored values. Cape Town International Airport (CTIA) surface data, 14km from the refinery, differed significantly from that of local meteorological stations. AERMOD modelled SO2 concentrations based on CTIA surface and upper air data differed significantly from those based on local (Table View) data. Good agreement with monitored ambient concentrations and is achieved using the combination of local (Table View) surface meteorology and Lakes Environment's Upper Air Estimator using both Table View and CTIA surface data to estimate mixing heights.
Author Willem A. LandmanSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 23 (2013)More Less
Numerical Weather and Climate Prediction is an excellent general introduction to atmospheric modelling. Atmospheric modelling students, model users as well as aspiring model developers will find this book useful. The book is based on course material presented over 30 years by the author at two universities in the USA, and from his vast numerical modelling experience. The book is therefore highly recommended for all atmospheric modelling scientists. However, the book does not specialise in particular aspects of atmospheric modelling.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 23, pp 23 –31 (2013)More Less
For key stakeholders to make informed air quality management decisions it is often necessary for in-depth data analysis to be tailored and concisely presented to meet their needs. Given the complexity of sources, the abundance of relevant data (e.g. monitoring, modelling, process data) and the spatial and temporal scale of these issues, the provision of this information can be challenging, particularly with multiple stakeholders requiring varying outputs. Using a case study which investigated PM10 in the vicinity of a steelworks, this paper will illustrate how Openair (an open-source air pollution analysis package based on the programming language/statistical package R (http://www.openairproject.org/)) can be utilised to analyse relevant air pollution data on a spatial and temporal scale in order to support multi-stakeholder engagement and the resolution of air quality issues.
A wood gasification stove for domestic use : performance and emission factors using locally available fuelSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 23, pp 32 –35 (2013)More Less
It has been shown that large numbers of low-income SA households use wood for domestic cooking and space-heating purposes and are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants emitted from the unsophisticated appliances being utilised. Although the related problem of exposure to coal smoke from domestic fires has been and is being addressed, wood smoke exposure remains a pressing problem. The design of a more efficient wood using appliance therefore has the potential to reduce the particulate matter exposure of a considerable portion of the SA population. This paper presents the results of testing a natural draft wood gasification stove for domestic use based on the inverted downdraft principle. Prototypes have been built in two sizes suitable for relatively unsophisticated manufacturing techniques. The results of performance and emission factor testing using a laboratory fuel as well as fuel obtained from the local programme for eradication of invasive tree species (known as Working for Water) are presented. It is shown that simple wood gasification stoves can result in a considerable reduction in exposure of household members to particulate matter inhalation.
Dynamical downscaling of prevailing synoptic-scale winds over the complex terrain of Mariepskop, South AfricaSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 23, pp 36 –39 (2013)More Less
Locations where large altitudinal gradients exist have been shown to be a good early indicator of climate change. Mariepskop is a high mountain peak situated in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. It is partly isolated from the rest of the Drakensberg mountain range, making it ideal to study the effects of flow dynamics and climate over the mountain without interference in the flow from adjacent topography. The flow dynamics of Mariepskop was studied by forcing averaged, long term synoptic observations at Mariepskop across the lateral boundaries of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Although CFD models have traditionally been used for engineering applications, CFD models have been used more commonly in the meteorological realm over the last few years. Model results were verified by weather station observations and aerial photographs of the mountain. The model was able to simulate wind speed, wind direction and high rainfall areas relatively well.