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- Volume 24, Issue 2, 2014
Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug - Volume 24, Issue 2, 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2, 2014
Author Gregor FeigSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24 (2014)More Less
I would like to start this message by thanking all of those people who have helped make 2014 an interesting and successful year for the National Association for Clean Air (NACA). Firstly, I would like to thank the outgoing NACA president, Dr Kristy Langermann, for all her hard work and dedication to the organisation. I would like to express my heartfelt appreciation to the KZN Branch committee for all the effort and organisation that went into hosting the NACA conference. Finally, I would like to welcome Dr Caradee Wright who has been elected to the position of Vice President, the two new national committee members (Mr Benton Pillay and Mr Napo Ntsasa), and the newly elected committees for the Northern Branch, the Western Cape Branch and the North-West Branch. I look forward to a successful working relationship over the next two years.
Author Richard MillsSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24 (2014)More Less
Author David CarslawSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 4 –5 (2014)More Less
The amount of air quality data collected around the world is enormous and continues to grow. This data is expensive to collect and manage, requiring specialist equipment, trained staff and a commitment over many years. Despite the large investment in collecting data, the analysis of data is more adhoc, fragmented and limited in ambition. Often, these data are analysed in very basic ways such as to compare measured concentrations with air quality standards and other guidelines. While such analysis is useful from a compliance perspective, it is also a wasted opportunity to gain more insight into the underlying characteristics of air pollution. An improved understanding of the causes of air pollution ultimately leads to improved air quality management.
Author Thuli MdluliSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24 (2014)More Less
The South African air quality governance cycle (National Framework, 2012) illustrates that informed decision-making is fundamental to good governance, and decisions can only be properly informed if decision-makers have ready access to accurate, relevant, current and complete information. Thus, the information management component of the governance cycle is crucial and it can be defined as the engine that drives the cycle towards continuous improvements in environmental quality. In light of that, the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) has established the South African Air Quality Information System (SAAQIS), which is hosted by the South African Weather Service (SAWS). The information and knowledge management needs of government; as implied in national legislation are being met through the SAAQIS. The SAAQIS is divided into phases; the first being the ambient air quality module, which is also an information repository of all government air quality management documents. There are over a hundred monitoring stations in the country which report ambient air quality monitoring data to the SAAQIS and this enables all stakeholders, including government and the general public, to access verified data showing the state of air quality at any given point in time.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 8 –11 (2014)More Less
Measurement of the outlet particulate concentration on pressure-type bag filters, whether intermittent or continuous, has been avoided in South Africa as cumbersome and possibly inaccurate. A system based on the requirements of the US EPA's method 5D was however recently designed and installed on three pressure-type reverse air filters serving ferro-chrome electric arc furnaces in order to allow comparison with the legal emission concentration limits for this type of furnace. This paper reports on the design considerations and design process of this system.
Author De Wet SchutteSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 12 –16 (2014)More Less
Background : In developing countries, it often occurs that little attention is given to air pollution emissions due to a lack of proper town planning, household combustion processes, energy production and the continuous growth in the transport sector (Norman et al., 2007:783). There is an increase in urban air pollution in most of the major cities of developing countries which is amplified by population growth and industrialization (World Resource Institute, 1998, 1999:1). Air pollution studies are not complete, and may fail if the quality of life and the perceptions of the studied community are not taken into consideration. This paper investigates the air quality perceptions of a high income residency surrounded by industrial activities and Mossel Bay was rated as to have potentially poor air quality by the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
Methods : A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Bayview, Mossel Bay. The perceptions of the respondents were collected by a structured questionnaire. Components of perceptions that were tested included general opinion regarding air quality, visual perceptions of air quality, type of pollutants such as smoke and dust, perceptions regarding the source of air pollution, perceptions regarding the municipal health institution controlling air quality in Bayview, etc. These perceptions were investigated by age, gender, socio-economic status etc.
Conclusion : The findings of the study indicated that various factors, such as visual impacts, type of pollutants, role of the municipal health institution governing air quality, influence the air perceptions of the Bayview residents.
Effectiveness of mediation in the resolution of environmental complaints against the activities of gold mining industries in the Witwatersrand regionSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 17 –23 (2014)More Less
In the Witwatersrand gold mining area, there have been recurring public complaints about dust dispersed from gold tailings storage facilities (TSFs) that traverse the landscape. Although weather aggravates the frequency and intensity of dust emission from TSFs in the study area, the rapid conversion of buffer areas around the dumps to residential land-use is exposing more people to dust hazards. This study assessed the effectiveness of Crown Mines Dust Monitoring forum in Johannesburg as an alternative environmental dispute resolution mechanism. Records of complaints from 1995 to 2010 that were made available through the forum were collated and analysed with the aid of descriptive statistics. Within the study period, complaints about mine pollution were more frequent between August and October, i.e. the dry months. More than 70% of the complaints were made by companies whose properties, operations and employees were affected by dust emission from the TSFs. While 52% of the complainants reported pollution problems for the first time within the study period, other cases were follow-up to previous complaints. Mining companies responded to 31% of the public's grievances about dust pollution from their facilities within one week and another 12% in two weeks; response to the remaining complaints took much longer time. As part of mines' response to public complaints, site visits were organised to indicted facilities, and pollution control measures and mitigation plan adopted at sites were also explained. Moreover, additional control measures were installed in critical circumstances to ameliorate dust pollution. Only a few of the complaints reported to the forum escalated to litigation or issuance of penalty by government agency. Although, the forum provided an avenue for resolution of environmental conflicts in a pragmatic and mutually beneficial manner, the right of the public to a clean environment is still not being realised fully.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 24 –28 (2014)More Less
A study carried out at the University of Pretoria characterised aerosol particle morphology of residential coal combustion smoke. The general approach in this study was on individual particle conglomerations because the radiative, environmental, and health effects of particles may depend on specific properties of individual particles rather than on the averaged bulk composition properties. A novel, miniature denuder system, developed and tested at the University of Pretoria, was used to capture particle emissions from the coal fires. The denuder consists of two silicone rubber traps (for gas phase semi-volatile organic compound monitoring) in series separated by a quartz fibre filter (for particle collection). The denuders were positioned 1 m away from the fire and were connected to pumps that sampled ~5 litres of air over a 10 min sampling interval. A JSM 5800LV Scanning Electron Microscope with a Thermo Scientific EDS was used to analyse the structure and morphology of different aerosol samples from the quartz fibre filters. Eight samples from the different fire lighting methods were selected for SEM analysis. The punched samples were sputter coated with gold for ~15 minutes using a K550 Emitech Sputter Coater. Results show that apart from the fine and ultra-fine particles, coal smoke from domestic burning also contains aerosols greater than 5 µm in diameter. Consequently, we describe the potential for generation of 'giant' carbonaceous soot conglomerates with outer diameters of 5 to 100 µm. However, the exact mechanism for formation of such large soot conglomerates remains to be determined. We also describe the presence of spherules and solid 'melted toffee' irregular surfaces. Circumstantial evidence is used to postulate and discuss the possible modes of formation in terms of condensation, and partial melting. This work provides a description of the modes of formation and transformation of conglomerates originating from low temperature (<800°C) coal combustion.
Sampling and analyses of polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs) emissions in South Africa : a practitioner's guideSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 29 –32 (2014)More Less
Dioxins and furans are toxic chemicals. A draft report released for public comment in September 1994 by the US Environmental Protection Agency clearly describes dioxin as a serious public health threat. The public health impact of dioxins may rival the impact that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had on public health in the 1960's. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency(USEPA) report, not only does there appear to be no "safe" level of exposure to dioxin, but levels of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals have been found in the general US population that are "at or near levels associated with adverse health effects." With this in mind the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current dioxin and furan emissions from industry in South Africa, in terms of compliance with the relevant emission limit values (ELVs) and the current challenges faced with the monitoring and analysis thereof.