oa Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug - Measurement of surface ozone in South Africa with reference to impacts on human health : commentary

Volume 25, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1017-1703



At the bottom of the troposphere, the boundary layer (below the free troposphere) where we live and breathe, ground-level ozone (O) (also called surface O because it forms just above the earth's surface) pollution has direct impacts on human health, agriculture and vegetation. Surface O is a secondary atmospheric pollutant formed by reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or carbon monoxide (CO) in the presence of sunlight. The sources of these O precursors originate from a range of anthropogenic and natural processes (Oltmans et al., 2013). Stratospheric intrusions of O-rich air to the free troposphere that contribute to surface O may also occur (Lin et al., 2012).

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