oa Codicillus - The liability of a public carrier of goods by land and water
The author discusses the liability of a public carrier by land and water. Earlier, cases that dealt with the liability of carriers by land extended the strict liability that applied to carriers by water only to carriers by land, by way of analogy and not as a matter of law. The Supreme Court of Appeal corrected these decisions in the case of <I>Anderson Shipping (Pty) Ltd v Polysius (Pty) Ltd 1995 (3) SA 42.</I> The author submits that with regard to the strict liability of the public carriers by water for reward, the <I>Anderson</I> decision is authority for the proposition that strict liability does not apply to carriers by land. He submits, therefore, that the liability of public carriers is similar to that of private carriers, which is based on fault. As regards carriers by water, the author submits that the common law rule that strict liability applies is considerably modified by the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1 of 1986, in terms of which liability is fault based. He concludes that statutory liability applies to public carriers by water. End
Umbhali uxoxa ngesibopho esisemthethweni sezinto ezisetshenziselwa ukuthwala ezingezikawonkewonke ezihamba emgwaqeni nasemanzini. Amacala avela esikhathini esingaphambilini ayebhekene nesibopho esisemthethweni salezo zinto zokuthwala zasemgwaqeni, yiwona ayebeka isinqumo ngesibopho esisemthethweni esiqinile ebesisebenza kuphela kulezo zinto zokuthwala zasemanzini, abe eselulelwa kulezo zinto zokuthwala emgwaqeni ngokuthi kususelwe isibonelo lapho, hhayi ngenxa yokuthi kwenziwa njengodaba lomthetho. INkantolo eNkulu yeziKhalo yabe seyizilungisa lezi zinqumo ecaleni lika-<I>Anderson Shipping (Pty) Ltd v Polysius (Pty) Ltd 1995 (3) SA 42.</I> Umbhali uveza ukuthi mayelana nokusetshenziswa kwesibopho esisemthethweni ngalokho kokuthwala kukawonkewonke ukuze kube khona okuzuzwayo, isinqumo sika-<I>Anderson</I> siyigunya lesiphakamiso sokuthi isibopho esisemthethweni esiqinile asisebenzi kulezo zinto zokuthwala emgqwaqeni. Ube esesho ngenxa yalokho ukuthi isibopho esisemthethweni sezinto zokuthwala emgwaqeni siyafana naleso sezinto zokuthwala zangasese esesekelwe phezu kwephutha. Mayelana nezinto zokuthwala zasemanzini, umbhali uveza ukuthi umtheshwana womthetho owejwayelekile wokuthi makusebenze isibopho esisemthethweni esiqinile uguqulwe ngokuthe xaxa nguMthetho 1 ka-1986 wokuThwalwa kweziMpahla oLwandle, okuthi ngawo isibopho esisemthethweni sesekelwe phezu kwephutha. Uqedela ngokuthi ukuba nesibopho ngokusemthethweni kuyasebenza ezintweni zokuthwala zikawonkewonke zasemanzini. End
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