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- Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa
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- Volume 26, Issue 1, 2007
Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa - Volume 26, Issue 1, 2007
Volumes & issues
Volume 26, Issue 1, 2007
Lacan's three orders, the graphe complet and music in film : the case of Hitchcock's Spellbound : research articleAuthor Z. PotgieterSource: Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa 26, pp 1 –26 (2007)More Less
This article engages with the Lacanian tradition of film theory in order to suggest some of the ways in which music in film may be understood to contribute significantly to subject identification in filmic experience. Two points are argued: 1) that Lacan's distinction between the three orders - the Real, the Imaginary and the Symbolic - may usefully be understood in musical terms, and, 2) that the two vectors of Lacan's graphe complet - the vector of speech and the vector of drive - provide meaningful insight into the manner in which the three orders shape filmic musical experience. Analysis of Miklos Rosza's score for Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound (1945) serves to illustrate such insights.
The creation of an Internet public sphere by South Africa's Independent Electoral Commission and Elections Canada : research articleSource: Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa 26, pp 27 –43 (2007)More Less
A prerequisite for a healthy, sustainable democracy is an informed citizenry that participates in the democratic process (see Habermas, 1989:49). In recent years much discourse on the media and democracy correlation has focused on the potential role of the Internet in facilitating political communication by establishing a virtual public sphere.
This article investigates the extent to which the South African (IEC) and Canadian electoral commissions' websites have succeeded in establishing a virtual public sphere. The Elections Canada web site (representing an established democracy) has succeeded better at resembling some of the normative principles of the public sphere theory than has the IEC.
Attitudes towards attractive and credible celebrities in advertisements : a survey amongst students : research articleSource: Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa 26, pp 44 –58 (2007)More Less
The saying, beauty is in the eye of the beholder, is relevant in the use of attractive and credible celebrities in advertisements. A celebrity endorser is seen as a model who enjoys recognition from the public and who can be seen as an ubiquitous feature of marketing today. The use of celebrity endorsers is a fairly common practice in many organisations in supporting their corporate or brand image.
This article focuses on both the attractiveness and also the credibility of celebrities in advertisements. It is anticipated that attractive celebrities and credible celebrities could influence attitudes positively, and that this will eventually lead to the purchasing of the advertised products and services. O'Mahony and Meenaghan's (1997/1998) Perceptions of Celebrity Endorsements Scale was used to measure the overall attitudes of students on celebrity endorsements. Separate sets of items were developed to measure attractive and credible celebrities separately. The internal consistency reliability of these measurement scales reflected high scores (α > 0.70) on all items.
In general, the respondents positively perceived celebrity endorsements. However, the overall rating of respondents in respect of an attractive celebrity in an advertisement was decidedly more unfavourable. Results also showed attitudes towards credible celebrity endorsements to be neither positive nor negative.
An investigation into the processes used in the production of printed health messages in South Africa : research articleSource: Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa 26, pp 59 –73 (2007)More Less
Effective communication processes that include and invite audience participation are crucial for quality health care in a country. In South Africa the importance of this has been an issue of considerable discussion and debate. Critics have pointed out that many of the printed health messages and health communication campaigns that use the printed medium in South Africa are ineffective. To a great extent this failure is ascribed to the lack of audience involvement in the development and production of such messages.
This article reports on an investigation undertaken to examine the extent of this problem. The processes used to develop and produce printed mass media health communication messages in South Africa are investigated by means of an in-depth exploration of the literature discussing and evaluating the production of health messages. This is complemented by an empirical exploration of selected printed messages covering a wide range of issues.
Little evidence was found in the study of the reciprocal nature of communication where producers and communicators of health messages engage in sustained dialogue with their target audiences. The conclusion is drawn that audience participation is not the norm in the production processes of printed mass media health messages in South Africa.
Source: Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa 26, pp 74 –91 (2007)More Less
The nature of HIV / Aids media coverage has been widely criticised, mainly by interest groups. This has resulted in constructive, though somewhat fragmented, guidelines on ethically acceptable, accountable HIV / Aids reporting. In this article the analysed and systematically summarised guidelines (Swanepoel, 2005:77-137) are used to evaluate HIV / Aids reporting in three South African Sunday papers. It was found that these newspapers partially meet the interest group criteria. They raise awareness satisfactorily, but agenda setting could be improved. Although there is comprehensive coverage of HIV / Aids issues, critical, in-depth reporting is lacking. Furthermore, there is an exaggerated focus on HIV / Aids politics, and too little on relevant scientific and social issues. A lack of alternative angles and a tendency towards sensationalism are noticeable. The three papers often emphasise the "victim image", and fail to use HIV / Aids-sensitive language consistently. In respect of accuracy, there are deficiencies in the use of news sources.
Reconciling editorial independence and public accountability issues in Public Broadcasting Service : editorial policies at the South African Broadcasting Corporation : research articleSource: Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa 26, pp 92 –113 (2007)More Less
A public broadcaster is pulled in two directions: There is the need to be accountable to the public, and the imperative to be editorially independent at the same time. The first implies parameters and control systems; the second points to the need for autonomy. This distinctive tension marks out a key difference between public and private broadcasting (through the public accountability component), and between public and government-controlled broadcasting (through the editorial independence proviso). Several dimensions can be identified in regard to assessing accountability and editorial independence, and also to the way that policy can work to integrate these two apparently contradictory imperatives. In 2004, the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) was required in effect to mediate the complex challenges in this tension by formulating detailed editorial policies and systems. The significance of the SABC experience also extends to understanding the nature of policy more broadly.
Author T.E. BoschSource: Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa 26, pp 114 –129 (2007)More Less
The South African social transition was accompanied by widespread media reform. Community radio stations were for the first time, set up to empower communities previously without access to the media. More than a hundred radio stations were licensed, and further provision was made for community television, even if it was nearly a decade later before there was any discernible movement in the area of community television. The paper addresses concerns about media, politics and identity struggles, viewed through the lens of community radio. While there is a wealth of literature analysing the development of various aspects of the South African media over the last decade, few, if any, studies specifically consider the role of community media. Set up after elections in 1994, expressly to create spaces for the articulation of marginal or "disadvantaged" groups, the community radio sector in South Africa has mushroomed, with nearly a hundred stations currently licensed.
This paper will explore the ways in which community radio has facilitated the construction of new identities. Adopting a case-study approach, the paper considers community radio station Bush Radio, discussing how the station interpellates diverse identities through its programming. In the Pink, for example, creates a space for the articulation of various gay identities, while the Children's Radio Education Workshop becomes a mediated space for youth in the new political dispensation to form a generational consciousness. The intersection of class, culture and language at Bush Radio, and on its airwaves, often results in the constant (re)negotiation of identities.
Furthermore, the paper also reflects on the religious or community-of-interest community radio stations, and argues that these stations further serve the purpose of identity building. The resultant listener loyalty results in increased sustainability; they serve the purpose of therapy or confession, giving listeners an outlet for frustrations; and finally, religious community radio stations become a virtual church, transcending physical boundaries and resulting in instantaneous religious community building.
Radio listening clubs in Malawi and Zambia : towards a participatory model of broadcasting : research articleAuthor F. BandaSource: Communicare : Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa 26, pp 130 –148 (2007)More Less
This paper, based upon a field research project commissioned by the Panos Institute Southern Africa, investigates the communicative efficacy of the radio listening clubs project implemented by the Institute in Malawi and Zambia. The investigation takes the form of a 'second-order interpretation' of the key findings of the field research. The findings are analysed in terms of the participatory communication model of development communication. The paper argues that the clubs live up to some of the ideal-typical attributes of participatory communication. This is evident in the following areas: (i) a propensity for social mobilisation; (ii) acquisition of skills and knowledge; (iii) communally induced motivation to listen to the radio; (iv) the possibility of interpersonal influence within groups; (v) the benefit of being 'organised' structures; (vi) the 'massive' reach of the clubs; and (vii) the dialogic interchanges between the rural-based groups and the urban-based policymaking elites.