This issue of Communicare primarily explores the concept of stakeholders and their relationship with the organisation. This relationship is investigated both within and between organisations. The stakeholder concept originally described in the influential work by Freeman (1984) has, over the years, been adapted to include multiple stakeholders who may not have a direct stake in the organisation, but who can, and do, influence the actions of the organisation. The extent of this influence has become such that the strategic focus and intent of a business should include the development of strategic relationships with important stakeholders.
Although the concept 'organisation-stakeholder relationship (OSR)' is not new and has been researched extensively in the literature, few attempts have been made to critically analyseexisting viewpoints and propose a unified conceptual framework. The main research problem of this paper is to address this lack of a commonly accepted conceptual framework for organisational stakeholder relationships. This is done through a critical analysis of the different perspectivesand existing conceptual frameworks, using a qualitative method whereby strategic stakeholder identification, OSR development, and OSR maintenance are integrated to propose a conceptual framework, subsequently termed SISOSR, for building organisation-stakeholder partnerships(OSPs) with strategic stakeholders. This article is structured as follows: Firstly, the key concepts are defined; secondly, the building blocks of the framework are presented based on sound theoretical constructs; and. thirdly, the SISOSR framework is graphically presented and discussed to elaborate on the proposed process of OSR building, followed by concluding arguments.
The research objective for the study was to conceptualise strategic communication management (SCM) in the context of governance. Based on the insights obtained through the conceptual analysis, the core of corporate communication practice in the reflective paradigm is broadened from social responsibility to societal responsibility. Corporate communication, in its strategic role (SCM), therefore assists in solving or avoiding conflict between organisational behaviour and the public perception of how societally responsible organisations should operate.
Furthermore, theoretical and conceptual linkages that emerged through the conceptual analysis suggest that the three meta-theoretical approaches initially selected for the governance domain (the triple bottom line, stakeholder, and stakeholder inclusiveness approaches) should also be added to the framework for SCM. It was also found that corporate communication (especially in its strategic role, known as SCM) can be regarded as a stakeholder orientated / responsible approach.
Many studies have explored Network Direct Selling Organisations (NDSOs) because they create many communicative contexts and demonstrate such a diverse range of communicative processes that form and sustain this large industry. These organisations exist in more than 70 countries, and have almost 88 million members who generate over US$132 billion annually (WFDSA, 2011). This paper argues that although NDSOs can be differentiated from other types of organising, their characteristics can be linked to some key premises in postmodern thinking about organising. It utilises the schismatic metaphor identified by Morgan (1981) to generate further insights into the study of individuals as composite unities of operationally closed self-creating systems that cocreate organisations such as NDSOs. The schismatic metaphor is utilised to provide a powerful framework for social analysis of organisations by identifying and discussing some theoretical links between postmodernism, social autopoiesis, and second-order cybernetics.
This article presents an indicative sample from the results of an experiment that gathered audience responses to television news that was coded as "war journalism" and "peace journalism" respectively, in South Africa, during April 2012. From the peace journalism model, evaluative criteria were derived under a set of five headings for content analysis of two television news programmes and four newspapers. Distinctions under the headings were particularised for individual stories by critical discourse analysis to disclose potential sources of influence transmitted into audience frames. The test material was then coded to fall within the upper and lower peace journalism quartiles of the 'idiom and range' of journalism, as currently practised, demonstrated by the content analysis. Transcripts of discussions by focus groups who saw the material, as well as written notes made whilst viewing by a larger sample of participants, werethemed according to Entman's model of framing (1993), where causal interpretation is linked to treatment recommendation. From these interim findings, peace journalism proved to be ideational in the sense that peace journalism viewers were more likely to perceive structural and/or systemic explanations for problems, and more likely to see opportunities for therapeutic and/or cooperativeremedies to be applied through exertions of political agency from different levels.