- A-Z Publications
- Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research
- Previous Issues
- Volume 27, Issue 1, 2001
Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research - Volume 27, Issue 1, 2001
Volume 27, Issue 1, 2001
Author Rachel BarkerSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 3 –14 (2001)More Less
In spite of the conventional wisdom stated by various authors that 'we are living in the information age' - a communication era characterised by a global expansion in the reach of mass media and electronic information 'superhighways' that span the globe - it is clear that there is growing realisation that it is still difficult to reach and communicate with rural communities in South Africa. The main aim of this article is therefore to examine the application of development communication theories in practice when communicating with communities in the Third World. In this article I argue that the viability of and prospects for effective communication with communities depend on three interrelated aspects. Firstly, the viability and prospects depend on current theoretical trends or approaches in development communication, because at the root of development communication - regardless of how this concept is defined - lies the issues of a structured and theoretical approach to community communication which are determined by current trends. Secondly, and crucial to the viability and prospects of community communication, is the question of which development communication methods or media to apply at the various stages of communication to reach the different target audiences. Thirdly, the viability and prospects for successful community communication will be influenced by an integrated approach to the application of development communication methods and media in development communication programmes or strategies.
Barriers to formal communication in the South African National Defence Force : indicators related to the Tempe incidentAuthor L.H. HartleySource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 15 –23 (2001)More Less
This article investigates the relationship between the issues surrounding the Tempe incident, as reported in the press, and the communication barriers which were identified during the research study conducted by the author of this article. The study is based on convergence theory which states that when members of different cultures communicate with each other they will, over time, converge to a state of greater uniformity provided that communication between the members is unrestricted. To determine whether conditions exist that could facilitate or impede convergence a survey was conducted. The questionnaire for the survey was developed from impressions gained during focus group interviews. A factor analysis was performed to determine the location and extend of the communication barriers. The findings of the study, the impressions gained and the statements released by the press were correlated to emphasise the restriction of communication and the unlikeliness of convergence. The author tries to emphasise the serious implications of the barriers indicating that the barriers and the impressions gained are indicators related to the Tempe incident and should be given the necessary attention. An important finding is the correlation between the statements (grievances) made during the focus group discussions, the communication barriers and the media reports, especially those in the press. From the findings it can be deduced that the diversity in culture leading to different perceptions, ignorance of the other culture and language need to be addressed. The problem of feedback ie regulated information is one of great concern.
Author Daniel J. HenrichSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 24 –27 (2001)More Less
The griot, or African storyteller, was and is today, the main conveyer of the collective wisdom of the tribal peoples of Africa. Stories are presented in a stylistic way and are associated with great enjoyment. Even today among the rural Wolof of Senegal people gather in village squares to hang on each word the griot says. In fact, the Wolof are Muslims, about two million of whom live in Senegal. Large percentages are non-literate and the griot reinforces cultural norms of their adopted Islamic religion. There are many intruding influences on the cultural status quo of human beings. Culture is not static, rather transitional. Historically, this cultural status quo was influenced by increased interaction between villages, development workers desiring to drill wells to bring clean water to the villagers and by medical workers with improved health care and reduced infant mortality. In many ways, these so-called 'backward' cultures were wrenched into the 20th century. Culture was ignored. Infrastructure improvements were abandoned because they were 'extra cultural' and not desired by the villagers. Innovations which took the west hundreds of years to adopt are pushed onto less developed peoples and if they do not adopt these innovations, they are called laggards by the diffusion researchers. In this article, I will look at the village griot, his influence on the peoples of West Africa and India through two case studies. The first case deals with the Griot as opinion leader in facilitating change in Nigeria. The second case is based on a 1984 project I undertook in southern India using a traditional folk singer, or Villaputu artist to stimulate change. I will address the parallels between the Griot and modern media. My conclusions will be that modern TV & cinema does not occupy the same place as the griot in our society. TV & cinema do wield great influence and do communicate culture. Although they are more pervasive in our lives, modern media can provide mixed messages to the viewers.
Author Petrus NelSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 28 –35 (2001)More Less
From a justice perspective, strategic publics may be viewed as victims who have been harmed by the organisation and now seek reparation. Long-term relationships are only formed with organisations that treat strategic publics fairly. For public relations to be viewed as just, it must incorporate all three dimensions of justice theory, viz : distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. When all three dimensions are incorporated, public relations stands a better chance of the organisation being viewed as just and trustworthy by strategic publics. Only when strategic publics experience the relationship with the organisation as trusting and dignifying will they be able to feel committed to the organisation and its decisions; feel attached to the long-term relationship; and be less hostile when outcomes of strategic decisions are unfavourable. Justice theory provides public relations with a philosophy of how to conduct themselves with strategic publics that influence the goal attainment of organisations.
Author Charmaine ScrivenSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 36 –43 (2001)More Less
This article addresses the implications of the absence of an IMC (integrated marketing communication) approach to negative nongenerated publicity by referring to two cases experienced at the University of South Africa (Unisa). The article takes, as its point of departure, the emergence of the IMC approach and the position of publicity in the marketing communication mix, and concentrates on nongenerated publicity in that this has always been problematic for organisations due to its uncontrollable nature. This article proposes that an IMC approach can be used in overcoming the obstacle of negative, nongenerated publicity in organisations in that it allows better control of such publicity through aplication of specific criteria. In conclusion, the author proposes that negative nongenerated publicity should be dealt with by using an IMC approach as part of the organisation's strategic marketing plan.
Source: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 44 –57 (2001)More Less
Methodology, policy and the turn to post-LitCrit, are both strengths and weaknesses in cultural studies. As strengths, they have freed the field from the tyranny of quantitative methods and a deterministic positivism; but they are simultaneously weaknesses, in that cultural studies now exhibits an ambiguous relation to the 'material' - to contexts. Texts are disarticulated from contexts in the post-LitCrit 'tradition'. The consequences of inapplicable appropriations of cultural studies are now seen in regressive applications supposedly couched within the democratising imperative that was once the raison d'etre of the field. This study examines the consequences of the loss of the 'material' from certain inflections of cultural studies. Reports of the South African Human Rights Commission into Racism and the Media constitutes my case study. Using the concept of dynamic justice, I propose a return to context based on evaluative criteria rooted in the human condition. Instead of 'Texts', or even 'class consciousness', I argue that the principal contextual criteria for cultural studies research could be based on the socio-political value ideas of Freedom and Life Chances.
Support provided by corporate social responsibility programmes for the creation of universal access to ICT : a content analysis of corporate websitesSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 58 –74 (2001)More Less
This study analyses messages within corporate web pages as physical indicators of the following : the extent to which sampled companies provide information communication technology (ICT) to the South African society in terms of geographical spread; the types of ICTs they provide; the nature of their support; and the members of society targeted. Through latent coding, it seeks to deduce whether the companies realise their role in social development by focusing their corporate social responsibility programmes on societal needs and to establish whether their support is broadly aligned with government priorities. Although the study is exploratory in nature, it reveals the following noteworthy issues : The geographical spread indicates that seven of the 11 companies analysed focus their support for ICT on the country as a whole; most companies tend to provide a whole range of technological equipment rather than one type; the provision of equipment is coupled with training; and the support for ICT is largely aimed at schools. It is inferred that the companies realise their societal obligations; support government priorities; and are committed to social development by creating appropriate mechanisms for access to ICT.
Author Sonja VerweySource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 75 –90 (2001)More Less
In this 21st century, humanity finds itself 'midstride between an old and new era, and we have not yet found our way. We know the old no longer works, yet the new is not yet formed clearly enough to believe. We are developing a new story and in the process of altering much of what we think, feel and do.' (Nicoll in Parker, 1998:1). We are experiencing what Zohar (1997:24) refers to as a paradigm paradox - needing our paradigms to make sense of the world, yet becoming trapped or constrained within the boundaries of our thinking and how it informs behaviour within these boundaries. The swift movement of technology, the mobility of organisations and people in the global world, the competition for markets and customers, have all combined to ensure that the stable and developed world, modern economics has known, is forever gone (D'Aprix, 1994:14). According to Merry (1999:b) organisations must survive in a world of accelerated change, in an intertwined global village, powered by breakthroughs in technology. Sustainability has become an essential feature of adaptive corporations because of the complexity, instability and uncertainty of times. Gouillart and Kelly (1995:4) argue that the Communication Revolution not only forms the basis of this new business model, which necessitates the ability to manage the flow of information, but is in actual fact the facilitator of a fundamental social and business influence. An unstoppable trend towards connectivity. These authors argue that the entire history of civilisation and therefore of business, is one of increased connectivity. As the trends towards connectivity continues, the role of corporations within society must change.
Author G.M. (Trudie) Du PlooySource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 91 –102 (2001)More Less
This inaugural lecture focuses on Communication science and incorporates aspects related to the teaching, learning and researching thereof. I elected to situate these aspects in the context of higher and distance (or distributed) education (DE), provided by institutions, such as UNISA, because the characteristics of adult learners who study at a distance and their motivation to learn, differ from those of younger learners. The subtitle of the lecture (namely changes and challenges) refers to changes in the South African higher educational sector, as well as changes in the way in which we communicate in the new millennium - especially changes brought about by electronically-mediated communication.
Source: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 27, pp 103 –105 (2001)More Less