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- Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research
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- Volume 28, Issue 1, 2002
Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research - Volume 28, Issue 1, 2002
Volume 28, Issue 1, 2002
Source: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 28, pp 3 –15 (2002)More Less
Analysis Analysis of the compatibility timing and content of 1 045 primetime promotions (promos) for 194 United States of America (US) network movies carried on five broadcast and four cable/satellite television channels demonstrated that children may be exposed to inappropriate content in promotional messages even inside parentally approved programming. The three conditions contributing to unavoidability were the placement of promos for television parental guidance (TVñPG) and television age restriction of 14 (TVñ14) movies in programmes intended for family viewing, the early evening scheduling of a large proportion of movie promos on broadcast as well as cable/satellite channels, and the large proportion of movie promos containing violent and sexual content. Not only do promos attract attention with the most startling and shocking parts of movies, they also gain impact from their repetition, their appearance without warning within other programmes, and their invulnerability to parental controls ñ attributes that should be considered by policy makers, the television industry, and concerned citizens worldwide.
Author E. De VilliersSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 28, pp 16 –21 (2002)More Less
One One of the most disturbing paradoxes of modern times is that an acute sense of expanding moral responsibility goes hand in hand with a growing inability to bear such responsibility. This article demonstrates how modern technology, in particular information technology, has contributed to both the expansion of moral responsibility and the development of the responsibility gap. In order to deal adequately with the challenges modern technology poses in respect of moral responsibility, it has become necessary to supplement the classical notion of retro spective moral responsibility with the new notion of prospective moral responsibility. In the case of retrospective responsibility some or other negative outcome of the past is ascribed to a particular person or persons. In the case of prospective responsibility, the responsibility of preventing humans and nature from being actively harmed or to realise desirable future conditions by taking the necessary measures in the present, is ascribed to a particular person or persons, or, more likely, to a particular institution or institutions.
Source: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 28, pp 22 –28 (2002)More Less
Journalism Journalism is more than an ensemble of newsgathering and writing techniques. It is, firstly, a way of viewing and writing about the social world for the public benefit. Similarly, journalism is a means of fomenting conversations in the public domain about events and issues of immediate public interest. While much of journalism training concerns the techniques of text production, too little attention is given to educating students in the ontology or `mindset' within which those techniques and conventions work. Almost no attention is given to the epistemology or `research' approaches by which journalists monitor social phenomena. Short of calling for a more thorough grounding (as a framework) in critical thinking, we suggest that a more constructivist approach be taken to journalism training. This approach need not be prejudiced towards the more technical and functionalist approaches evident in so many textbooks on the subject. Constructive learning is described by some scholars as `active, cumulative, goaldirected, diagnostic and reflective behaviour' (Breen 1996: 4). All these behaviours are found in journalism practice, and should frame both words in journalism training. This requires a more interpretive approach that teaches the practice of journalism as many of the same processes commonly understood as learning.
Author D. HoltzhausenSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 28, pp 29 –38 (2002)More Less
Public Public relations is defined as the management of communication. However, the theory and practice of public relations are based on a modernist understanding of organisation. Alternative perspectives on the societal and organisational role of public relations are limited. This article explores the contribution of a postmodern critique of public relations, and the differences between modernism and postmodernism, particularly in organisational context. The current debate between critical theory and postmodern critique is also reviewed. Postmodernism is particu larly critical of the public relations focus on strategy and management. It rejects the manager as a rational being who has the ability to determine organisational outcomes through strategies, which are viewed as discursive techniques used to enhance the power of some corporate actors. Modern public relations is a hegemonic practice that interpellates practitioners into the system to legitimise the perspectives and actions of corporate managers as objective knowledge, particularly through discursive practices in organisational media. Finally, the media relations role of public relations is critiqued for its creation of a hyperreality that leads to the creation of a hypercivilisation that has no factual existence. This article concludes with suggestions for a postmodern research agenda and defends the simultaneous use of critical and postmodern theory.
Author G. SnymanSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 28, pp 39 –48 (2002)More Less
This This article follows aspects of the current debate on racism as embodied in the AIDSHIV controversy. It discusses President Thabo Mbeki's AIDS letter to world leaders in terms of the religious reality it invokes and his reaction to opposition at home regarding his stance on the link between AIDS and HIV. His handling of opposition is analysed in terms of Emmanuel Levinas's concept of the Other and J Hillis Miller's concept of the law of the text. The article concludes that the debate on racism is still stifled by essentialist thinking on both sides of the racial spectrum, making it very difficult to transcend the situation.
Criteria for a South African course in intercultural business communication : the case of Iscor in JapanSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 28, pp 60 –70 (2002)More Less
This This article describes an investigation into factors required for a development programme in intercultural business communication amongst the personnel of a South African company operating in the Japanese market. Drawing from items that were identified in the literature, and amongst individuals who operate in the Japanese market, a set of criteria was identified that could be included in a South AfricanñJapanese intercultural business communication course. These criteria were used in a structured ques tionnaire, which was pretested in interviews and a focus group, and then administered to a group of company managers who had travelled to Japan on business. The results of the research are a set of items ranked in terms of salience within three categories. The first comprises degree of knowledge of important aspects of Japanese life, the second consists of factors that lead to culture shock, and the third includes aspects that are deemed to be important in a course on South AfricanñJapanese intercultural business communication.
Source: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 28 (2002)More Less
New New technologies such as the World Wide Web (WWW) of the Internet have allowed organisations to advertise their products and services to a global target audience at a much lower cost than traditional advertising. This article explores both current and future trends of traditional and online advertising in available literature. It also discusses the nature of both forms of advertising and explains a new communication paradigm shift which provides organisa tions with the opportunity to advertise online to enable them now to reach the increasingly fragmented consumer audience in South Africa more effectively. It further argues that traditional media will not necessarily become obsolete. Both traditional and online forms of advertising are compared to indicate which form of advertising is still preferred by organisations today. Even though there seems to be some scepticism about the cost effectiveness of online advertisements and that the Internet as a new medium will eventually disappear, various scholars and theorists still argue in favour of advertising through this new medium. It is also predicted that current losses in online advertising will, sooner or later, turn into profits once more advanced application technologies and infrastructure become avail able, and as more consumers become educated in the use of this new medium to enhance the qualities of their life. Since online advertising will never replace advertising in traditional media, an integrated approach by marketers and advertisers appears to be the best solution.