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- Volume 30, Issue 1, 2004
Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research - Volume 30, Issue 1, 2004
Volume 30, Issue 1, 2004
Author C.S. De BeerSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 1 –14 (2004)More Less
This article grapples with the problem of understanding present human life and circumstances, and the challenges humans face in their effort to make sense of it. The importance of theory in this quest is emphasised. Two notions are considered in terms of their value towards this endeavour: globalisation and worlding. Globalisation is the current buzz word and some of the issues related to this term have been named. The term <I>world</I> is, however, preferred to <I>globalisation</I>, since <I>world</I> does not refer to the impersonal globe, cosmos or universe. The term <I>world</I>, or <I>worlding</I>, wants to emphasise humanisation and further signifies sense-making. Sense-making, however, is no easy matter. On the one hand, it involves the threatening reality of evil, not in the religious sense but in a profound ethical sense. On the other hand, it involves the process of the expansion of consciousness carried and supported by the ascent into the noosphere which offers an awareness of a kind of thinking other than and different from logical reasoning. While the one warns against the mechanisation of the mind, the other maintains that technique is a point of support for the spiritualisation of humanity. This world compels us to find or make sense of it; world is precisely where there is a place, a true place, for everybody. If this were not the case there would only be a globe: a place of exile where we would exist as strangers.
Author Frank MorganSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 15 –25 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... COMMUNICATIO Volume 30(1) 2004 pp. 15?25 Copyright: Unisa Press The price of freedom: professional capability Frank Morgan* Freedom of the press and other media is widely claimed and more or less widely practised, worldwide.1 It relies on claims to the supposedly universal human rights of freedom of expression and freedom of access to information2 and a belief that media freedom is fundamental to political and social freedom.3 It is enshrined in an increasing number of national constitutions.4 Yet, it is not itself free. It comes at a price. And for many people in the world, it is increasingly elusive ..
Author Hester LockyearSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 26 –43 (2004)More Less
This article explores the multicultural dimensions within the texts of three South African soap operas (soaps). It uses text analysis and interviews as a methodology to expose the intricate web of influences that are all part of the fabric of a South African soap. <br>The text and discursive analysis are based on Systemic Functional Linguistics Theory of Halliday. The analysis of the texts proceeds from a pre-interpretation stage, through an analysis stage and into a revisit or re-interpretative stage. The creators of the texts as well as commercial bias are seen as politico-economic and cultural influences which may have direct bearing on the texts and are therefore interrogated. The findings confirm no multicultural model for South African soaps and show correlation between commercial interests and homogenised South African stereotypes.
Against a heavy groundswell of criticism : the Media Monitoring Project (MMP) and text-orientated discourse analysis (TODA) : media studies : research articleAuthor P.S.W. LuthuliSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 44 –63 (2004)More Less
This article uses the Media Monitoring Project's (M P) report titled <I>News in Black and White : An Investigation Into Racial Stereotyping in the Media</I> (1999), published as part of the South African Human Rights Commission's (HRC) Media Racism Inquiry to present a critical evaluation of this media monitoring agency's choice and application of text-orientated discourse analysis during the inquiry in question. As well as highlighting the shortcomings and limitations of textual analysis in general, and those of text-orientated discourse analysis in particular, the errors that MMP researchers committed during the media inquiry are discussed alongside the aspects that they omitted. The article concludes that a combined use of analytical instruments such as ethnography and reception analysis with text-orientated discourse analysis is more likely to yield a superior analysis than the latter used in isolation.
E-governance and e-publicanism : preliminary perspectives on the role of the Internet in South African democratic processes : media studies : research articleSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 64 –89 (2004)More Less
In this article the focus is on the role of the Internet in democratic processes in sub-Saharan Africa, with a specific focus on South Africa. Two aspects of participatory democracy are looked at to establish the potential use of the Internet for democratic purposes. On the one hand, there is the use of the Internet in e-governance, for instance in national elections; on the other hand, by groups using the Internet to protest against government policy, in this case pertaining to health care for people living with HIV / AIDS. To frame the discussion of some South African examples, an overview is given of recent trends and developments, in which it is indicated that although some reasons for optimism do exist, a truly functional connection between democracy and the Internet is still a very long way off. Some major reasons for this state of affairs are discussed, for example, the question whether African governments will allow the inroads of digital communication through the Internet into their countries, especially given the history of a lack of media freedom in most countries. Infrastructural and informal problems resulting in a lack of connectivity are also outlined, showing some of the impediments to utopian scenarios. However, the theoretical assumption that the Internet not only provides the elite with a tool to wield power, but also allows smaller groupings to gain a foothold in communication channels, also holds true to a certain extent. The authors conclude that, while serious impediments remain, the Internet's potential for democratic purposes in South Africa is being realised.
On-line public relations : towards an integrated theoretical model : organisational, marketing and management communication : research articleAuthor Rachel BarkerSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 90 –110 (2004)More Less
Much has been said about the so-called information superhighway. Organisations are realising that a whole new world can be created on-line: more and more organisations, and individuals, are entering this superhighway at an incredible rate. Ironically, most people do not have a clue what the information superhighway really is, which is, for example, evident in the 1993 advertisement of the telecommunication giant, Pacific Bell, which claimed that: `While others talk about the information superhighway, we're actually building it', but only launched their consumer Internet access service in 1996. In spite of widespread ignorance, the exponential growth of the Internet provides public relations practitioners with constantly expanding on-line public relations resources and the opportunity to use these online systems to create or enhance the images of organisations in the market place. <br>Without theory, the field of on-line public relations has no framework for understanding, organising and integrating the many activities and purposes of online public relations. Therefore online public relations needs a body of knowledge grounded in theory. It is clear that the shift is away from mass communication towards dialogical or interactional communication. In order to understand the theory of on-line public relations, it is important to systemise it in terms of a theoretical approach. This leads to the main aim of this article, which is to propose a theoretical model, the On-line Public Relations (OPR) model, to provide a suitable framework for explaining the on-line public relations process, and if applied in the development of on-line public relations plans or strategies, it can maintain its utility as a framework for the analysis thereof. <br>Based on a qualitative approach, this article attempts to theoretically explore, describe, interpret and conceptualise the concept on-line public relations, with specific reference to the development of on-line public relations in South Africa, the shift from traditional paradigms to new on-line trends and the integration of on-line public relations with other communication processes. Particular reference is made to the theoretical foundations of on-line public relations, and it is argued that at the root of on-line public relations, as a framework for explaining it, lies the need for an integrated theoretical approach. In the last section, a new OPR model is proposed, and a brief discussion of the elements of the model, the conceptual foundation of on-line information and information overload is presented.
Web-based communication : the need for more valuable on-line information : organisational, marketing and management communication : research articleAuthor Charmaine Du PlessisSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 111 –130 (2004)More Less
Numerous studies about the Internet have already been conducted or are in the process of being conducted. However, after several years there still is no clear understanding of what form Webbased or on-line communication should take to make it really valuable to the consumer. The contribution of this article is its attempt to address the current contents of Web-based communication and to provide some ideas with regard to the shortcomings in this regard. It addresses the impact of the Internet on the South African society, the Internet as a new communication medium as well as its effect on organisational communication. It also argues that an on-line presence is no longer enough and that online customers want more value in terms of their online experience. <br>Although Web-based communication has become an integral part of many organisational practices, traditional communication channels or media will not necessarily become obsolete. The Internet is a new communication medium with much potential and can eliminate problems associated with traditional media and channels. <br>Web-based communication has become a powerful new means of communication in South Africa. Information has become more accessible, more affordable as well as more manageable to both individuals and organisations and has in the process also empowered South African society with more knowledge. However, new technologies are not only concerned with the availability of new communication channels, but also with the development of new credible communication messages for successful communication. <br>Web-based communication is a more complex task and requires a much more skillful approach to be successful than is the general belief among communication practitioners. After the initial rush to obtain an on-line organisational presence, organisations are currently concerned with the effective integration of the Internet into their traditional marketing communication mix. Marketers, public relations practitioners and advertisers today benefit from the advantages of Web-based communication in conjunction with traditional media. However, even though it is clear that the Internet has an impact on organisational communication (integration), it is less obvious what form on-line information should take to make it really valuable to the consumer.
Applying an open systems public relations model to destination image development : organisational, marketing and management communication : research articleAuthor Berendien LubbeSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 131 –150 (2004)More Less
Public relations is essentially a communications function concerned with relationships, image and image development and it is from this perspective that the subject is viewed. A literature survey of the use of public relations in tourism indicated that no structural theoretical framework for its application in destination image development has been postulated. This was found to be the case in both tourism and public relations literature. In this article, such a framework is devised. Adapting an existing open-systems public relations model to represent the process of establishing a tourism relationship between a tourist-generating country and a tourist destination does this. This model was used as the foundation for formulating a public relations strategic framework.
Building brands through alternative brand contact communications : organisational, marketing and management communication : research articleSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 151 –165 (2004)More Less
For many customers and consumers, the brand 'is the product'. Managers and marketing specialists therefore consider branding as a key strategic tool used to create awareness, reputation and build the organisation's image. The brand image results from contacts that stem from both the marketing and communications domains. To develop a synergistic brand identity all levels of consumer interaction or contact with the brand must be addressed and not only those delivered through planned marketing communications efforts. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the theory underlying the perceived nature and role of alternative brand communication contacts, within the context of the <I>outside-in</I> integrated brand contact approach in the South African marketing and communications industry. Certain propositions will be formulated to serve as stimuli that can be used to critically assess the inclusion of alternative brand communications techniques as an extra function of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC). Suggestions for future research will be offered.
Vir baie verbruikers en kliënte is die handelsmerk die 'produk'. Bestuurders en spesialiste in bemarking beskou die handelsmerk dus as 'n kern strategiese wapen wat aangewend word om bewuswording en reputasie te bou en die organisasie se beeld te vestig. Die handelsmerkbeeld het sy oorsprong in kontak wat uit beide die bemarkings- en kommunikasiedomeine voortvloei. Die ontwikkeling van die handelsmerkidentiteit op 'n sinergistiese wyse vereis dat alle vlakke van kontak en interaksie met die handelsmerk aangespreek word. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n oorsig te gee van die teorie wat die aard en rol van alternatiewe handelsmerk kommunikasie-kontakte, in die konteks van die uitwaartse-in, geïntegreerde handelsmerk kommunikasie in die Suid-Afrikaanse bemarkings- en kommunikasie-industrie, onderlê.
Marketing communication budget practices in South Africa : organisational, marketing and management communication : research articleAuthor Deon H. TustinSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 166 –174 (2004)More Less
International experience shows that the correct composition of a marketing communication budget is essential in building long-term brands. Trends in the United States of America (USA), for example, show that the composition of the marketing communication budget is positively skewed towards promotional spend (e.g. direct marketing, promotions, sponsorship and pubic relations). However, experience shows that high promotional spend at the cost of advertising spend (television, radio, magazine, outdoor and cinema advertising) might put long-term sales volumes and branding at risk. With evidence mounting that the marketing communication spend in South Africa is gradually showing a preference for promotional spend at the cost of advertising, fears of marketing communication practitioners that South African firms are buying short-term sales and market share at the expense of long-term brand equity, have increased. To investigate the validity of such fears a primary research study was conducted amongst 250 marketing / brand managers to profile current marketing communication budget practices in South Africa. Resolving the research problem at hand was largely dependent on the validity of the hypothesis which stated that promotional spending in South Africa has reached levels of more than half of the total marketing communication spend in South Africa. The survey results revealed that, on average, a 59/41 ratio currently prevails between advertising and promotional spend in South Africa. This finding contradicts the stated hypothesis and for now, at least, allays the previously mentioned fears of marketing practitioners. However, with the tendency of brand companies to increase promotional spend, budgeters are warned against the long-term risk of promotional spending at the cost of advertising. Because the study also features the most prominent marketing communication tools used and integrated to market products and services in South Africa over the long term, the findings serve as a benchmark for marketing and brand managers when constructing annual marketing communication budgets.