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- Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research
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- Volume 30, Issue 2, 2004
Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research - Volume 30, Issue 2, 2004
Volume 30, Issue 2, 2004
The story of the larger grain borer : communicating science to rural communities : development communicationSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30 (2004)More Less
Although the democratisation of science was prioritised after the South African democratic elections of 1994, thus, promoting dialogue, transparency and consultation, communication with rural communities remains a challenge in South Africa. Because of the diverse cultural landscape of the country, aspects such as language, traditions and poverty impact significantly on the facilitation of communication and the dissemination of information, particularly in rural communities.
The South African government's quest to build a better future for all South Africans places renewed emphasis on the role of 'development' and the use of communication to meet the future challenges of 'development for all'.
The purpose of this article is, firstly, to explore the development communication media used in the community awareness programme of the National Department of Agriculture of South Africa in the town of Makutu, Mpumalanga Province, and, secondly, to investigate and offer an assessment of the communication approach followed by the National Department of Agriculture. In this article the scene is set with a brief overview of development communication models and a discussion of different types of media and methods available for communicating with rural communities. A case study on an awareness project launched by the National Department of Agriculture is presented and the article concludes with an assessment of the case study against the theoretical overview presented in the first section of this article to determine the communication approach followed, and communication media and methods used.
A case study on The Larger Grain Borer (LGB), a quarantine insect pest of maize that has left a path of destruction through Africa, forms the basis of this article. The Directorate: Plant Health and Quality of the National Department of Agriculture of South Africa initiated this awareness project to empower farmers through awareness and education to prevent the spread, and to manage the impact, of the pest. It is believed that the key to rural food security lies in the country's ability to effectively disseminate information to rural communities.
Hoewel daar nà die demokratiese verkiesing in 1994 besluit is dat die demokratisering van die wetenskap voorrang moet geniet en sodoende dialoog, deursigtigheid en oorlegpleging bevorder, is kommunikasie met landelike gemeenskappe steeds 'n uitdaging. Weens die diversiteit van die Suid-Afrikaanse kulturele landskap, het aspekte soos taal, tradisies en armoede 'n beduidende impak op die fasilitering van kommunikasie en die verspreiding van inligting, veral onder landelike gemeenskappe.
Die Suid-Afrikaanse Regering se soeke na 'n beter toekoms vir alle Suid-Afrikaners plaas opnuut die fokus op die rol van 'ontwikkeling' en die gebruik van kommunikasie om die toekomstige uitdagings van 'ontwikkeling vir almal', die hoof te bied.
Die doel van hierdie artikel is eerstens om ondersoek in te stel na die ontwikkelingskommunikasiemetodes en -media wat in 'n gemeenskapsbewustheidsprogram van die Suid-Afrikaanse Nasionale Departement van Landbou in die dorpie Makutu in Mpumalanga, gebruik word. Tweedens word ondersoek ingestel na die kommunikasiebenadering wat deur die Nasionale Departement van Landbou gevolg word, en dit te assesseer. Hierdie artikel begin met 'n kort oorsig van ontwikkelingskommunikasiemodelle en 'n bespreking van verskillende tipes ontwikkelingskommunikasiemetodes en media wat beskikbaar is vir kommunikasie met landelike gemeenskappe. Daar is ook 'n gevallestudie oor 'n bewustheidsprojek deur die Suid-Afrikaanse Nasionale Departement van Landbou. Die artikel word afgesluit met 'n assessering van die gevallestudie teen die teoretiese oorsig wat in die eerste gedeelte van hierdie artikel gegee word, om te bepaal watterkommunikasiebenadering gevolg is, en watter kommunikasiemedia en metodes gebruik is.
'n Gevallestudie oor Die Groter Mielieboorder (Larger Grain Borer - LGB), 'n kwarantyn-insekplaag wat by mielies voorkom en reeds 'n pad van verwoesting in Afrika gelaat het, vorm die basis vanhierdie artikel. Die Direktoraat Plantgesondheid en -gehalte van die Suid-Afrikaanse Nasionale Departement van Landbou het hierdie bewustheidsprojek van stapel gestuur met die doel om dielandbou deur bewustheid en onderrig te bemagtig, en so te verhoed dat die plaag versprei en ookom die impak van die plaag te bestuur. Daar word geglo dat die sleutel tot landelikevoedselsekuriteit geleë is in die land se vermoë om inligting effektief na landelike gemeenskappe te versprei.
Author Daan Van VuurenSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 1 –23 (2004)More Less
In this article the author tracks various media and their usage in South Africa from 1994 to 2002 to see how they reacted to the extended choices in radio and television. Wider exposure to the media, that is, private radio and television stations other than the South African Broadcasting corporation (SABC), was supposed to deepen democracy in the sense that it would give people the opportunity to hear and see differing opinions on air. In addition, for the first time disadvantaged communities had a voice in the media in the form of community radio. In the context of the massive and positive political, social and administrative changes in wide range sectors in South Africa, it was surprising to see the relative stability of choices made by mass media users, in terms of both content and type. Some theoretical and pragmatic comments on this phenomenon are given in the article.
Source: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 24 –35 (2004)More Less
One of the outstanding features of the recent war in Iraq was the prominent media coverage given to so-called embedded journalists, that is, reporters travelling with, and under, the protection of coalition forces. This practice was severely criticised for compromising the independence of journalists. Editors nevertheless defended it on practical grounds. In this article it is argued that embedded journalism is part and parcel of the way South African media operate, albeit in a somewhat different form from what is prevalent in Iraq and that it includes far more than issues relating to conflict reporting. The issue of conflict of interests while gathering news is well documented and routinely addressed in handbooks on media ethics as well as ethical codes. But the South African media usually tend to shun open discussion of this and other ethical issues. Whatever the reason, the lack of debate on these and other media ethical issues prevents media users from seeing journalism for what it is: a value-laden activity more often than not determined by commercial considerations. These issues are addressed within the South African context and some pertinent questions are posed on the political and commercial embeddedness of journalists, that is, how conflict of interest permeates South African media. It is concluded that owners, managers and individual journalists all have some responsibility for the embeddedness of South African journalists. Given the focus on profits, it is suggested that the way forward would be for journalists to start speaking out and applying their specific ethical codes.
Understanding university student media preferences through the discourses of 'realism' and 'quality'Author Larry StrelitzSource: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 36 –49 (2004)More Less
This article examines two of the explanatory discourses most often used by the youth in explaining their preferences for local or global media - those of 'realism' and 'quality'. The article explores the 'empiricist' understanding of realism which seeks a correspondence, at a denotative level, between the 'realities' internal and external to the text, and argues that a desire for this correspondence, explains the youth's preference for local productions. However, the article also argues that ironically, in many instances, it is global, rather than local productions which most adequately reflect local lived conditions. The article also explores how many students' preference for global media is premised on the perceived superior 'quality' (understood in terms of production techniques) and that the discourse of 'quality' is one often used by South African media producers to explain the relatively poor state of the local film and television industries. Finally, the article highlights that an attraction to the 'quality' of American productions often coexists with a profound anti-Americanism.
Source: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 50 –83 (2004)More Less
This article, which is based on a focused synthesis of a range of historical, political, policy, regulatory and other factors, proposes a normative policy model for community radio broadcasting in Zambia. It starts with a historical analysis of the factors that have influenced the development of community radio broadcasting in the country, particularly in the period before and after 1991. It is argued that community radio broadcasting in Zambia is largely reflective of the state-centric policy-making regime. This policy-making regime is itself a legacy of British colonialism. The policy proposal put forward in this article is informed by the assumptions of the group and organised anarchy models of policy-making and seeks to promote community radio broadcasting in terms of its vision, regulatory structures, funding, training, technology, production of local content and research.
Source: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 84 –97 (2004)More Less
This article considers two approaches to ethical decision-making on the issue of reporting on human immunodeficiency virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV / AIDS)-related deaths in the popular media. The conflict between cultural values and the public interest is explored via the ethical approaches of communitarianism and utilitarianism. The death of a former South African presidential spokesperson, is taken as an illustration of how these approaches might lead to different ethical decisions.
Source: Communicatio : South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research 30, pp 98 –113 (2004)More Less
This article developed from pilot research in a coursework Master's module in African Languages into combined outcomes of persuasive messages and visual literacy based on semiotics. It tested assertions by various writers about mass media, as applicable to a semi-urban or rural group of (black) South Africans with educational levels ranging from Grade 10 to Honours level. Owing to the fact that interviewees are financially constrained (and therefore cannot always afford television access or the acquisition of magazines), the focus of 'persuasive messages' was on billboard advertising in their living and work contexts. It was found that the consumers (respondents to the questionnaire) reacted positively to billboards that supported products on which they have been relying; that once they have been introduced to a product and found it efficient, competitive campaigns do not impinge on their stance; but also that in this particular semi-urban area traditional values folklore and usages have to be taken into consideration by advertisers for effective communication.