Journal for Contemporary History - Volume 28, Issue 3, 2003
Volume 28, Issue 3, 2003
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 1 –28 (2003)More Less
What precisely the boundaries of the possible were, how Bismarck, Hitler and Kohl reacted thereupon and what implications it had for Germany and Europe, are investigated here. The important intermezzo of the Cold War, and thus also the roles of Adenauer and Brandt, are also considered. Ultimately it boils down to the interaction between individual and impersonal factors in the shaping of history.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 29 –43 (2003)More Less
In November 1998 it was announced that the South African Navy (SAN) would acquire four new "patrol corvettes" (frigates). The high cost involved, as well as allegations concerning problems in the tendering process, plunged the whole armaments acquisition process into controversy. In this, the first of two articles, the purpose and value of frigates to the SAN will be placed in historical perspective by analysing the first frigate era in its history, i.e. from the last few months of World War II, to the mid-1980s. The history of the following ships is briefly discussed: in the first article, the "Loch" class frigates SAS Good Hope, SAS Natal, SAS Transvaal, and SAS Vrystaat (the SAN's first "big" frigate); and in the second article, the "President" class frigates SAS President Kruger, SAS President Steyn and SAS President Pretorius. The ships' operational roles, the part they played in assistance operations and their diplomatic functions, are evaluated. The place and role of frigates in the SAN in general, are evaluated against the background of the political situation in South Africa and the international political context, with special reference to the Cold War.
Author A. DuvenhageSource: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 44 –71 (2003)More Less
Wêreldwyd is politieke verandering en soms politieke transformasie (ingrypende sentraal-beplande politieke verandering van 'n progressiewe aard) aan die orde van die dag. Die aard en uitkoms van hierdie politieke verandering verskil van staat tot staat en van samelewing tot samelewing, wat daarop neerkom dat biljoene mense daagliks gekonfronteer word met die uiteenlopende en dikwels konflikterende eise van 'n veranderende politieke omgewing.
Author P. De KlerkSource: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 72 –91 (2003)More Less
D.W. Krüger (1906-1981) was a professional historian who published books in both English and Afrikaans. His publications include surveys of twentieth century South African history of which The making of a nation is the most comprehensive. These surveys were used as university textbooks during the 1960s and '70s. The article compares Krüger's overview of the period 1939-1961 with more recent surveys of the same period. Krüger's chapters on the Second World War and the implementation of the policy of apartheid are especially examined. It is concluded that Krüger's texts are strongly white centric and have several defects. Nevertheless he largely succeeds in giving a clear and balanced interpretation of major political developments of his own time. His books should still be regarded as valuable additional texts for studying twentieth century South African history.
Author Johan W.N. TempelhoffSource: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 92 –113 (2003)More Less
In the first instalment on the stylistic approach to the historiography the diversity implicated in the practice of the discipline was taken note of. Focus was placed on the paradigm of science, spirit of the time and the self. The way in which historiography and style blend to help us to understand the past was noted. In this second instalment focus is placed on the political, social as well as socio-economical historical trends. Recent trends in historical writing are also outlined.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 114 –133 (2003)More Less
Historically seen the South African form of state was typical of a unitary state. During the constitution writing process and especially in regard to the Interim Constitution and the Final Constitution, much more focus was placed on the federal character of the form of state. The Constitutional Principles gave a distinct federal character with regard to the acknowledgement of the three different government levels (central, provincial and regional levels) as well as a clear description of the competence and power of each of the levels of government. In this article the authors analyzed the new constitutional dispensation of South Africa and found that the form of state is still unitary.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 134 –151 (2003)More Less
To record merely that Winkie Direko, present premier of the Free State Province, was born on 27 November 1929 in Bochabela (Mangaung) and to an average family, will be an inadequate prelude to assessing her community and political life, which had an impact on her political career.
Author Joseph SmilesSource: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 152 –164 (2003)More Less
The outcome of the Zimbabwe presidential election from 9-11 March 2002 is the subject of heated debate on the continent and in world politics. Behind the official jubilation by President Robert Mugabe and the ruling party, the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), lies a dark story of terror and repression amongst ordinary Zimbabweans, reports K MacGregor. The thorny issue focuses on the question whether the presidential election was free and fair.
Author P.A. ErasmusSource: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 165 –177 (2003)More Less
The sustained policy of demolishing homes and forcibly moving people from the land on which they had been living was for a long time one of the most reviled practices of the South African state (Desmond 1986, Du Toit 1982, Harries 1970, O'Regan 1989 and Tatz 1962). Land is (and has always been) of particular significance to humankind. Without it people would not have homes, building materials, grazing areas, places to cultivate crops, etc.
Die 1981 Springbok-rugbytoer na Nieu-Seeland : die katalisator in die stryd teen apartheid in Suid-Afrikaanse rugbySource: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 178 –197 (2003)More Less
In analysing the history of South African sport the 1981-Springbok rugby tour to New Zealand is always mentioned as one of the turning points in the struggle against apartheid in South African sport. Due to the nature of the segregated sports development in South Africa, there has always been a racial undertone in the rugby relations between South Africa and New Zealand, but the All Blacks have always been one of South Africa's closest rugby allies. The 1981 tour, however, changed all of this, mainly because it caused a rift within the New Zealand rugby community and led to strong political undertones that nearly halted the tour. Various anti-apartheid groupings, the New Zealand police force and the rugby-mad New Zealand people came in confrontation with one another during the tour. This confrontation was orchestrated by 'behind the scenes' developments, and attempts by the anti-apartheid organisations to dismantle apartheid in South African sport. By disrupting and almost stopping the tour, these orchestrated attempts by the anti-apartheid movements set an example for future actions against apartheid in South African sport. These actions not only stunned the rugby public in New Zealand, but television brought these visuals to the homes of many white South Africans for whom it was their first real experience of the boycott actions against South African sport.
The role of the South African Police and supportive local authorities in crime prevention in Mangaung, Bloemfontein, 1945-1976Author Charl Le RouxSource: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 198 –215 (2003)More Less
The alarming increase in crime numbers for juveniles and the continuous increase in the prison population after 1945 indicate that the South African penal system on its own was unable to solve the crime problem of South Africa. It is consequently the aim of this article to determine to what extent the South African Police, stationed in the suburb of Batho in Mangaung, succeeded in providing sufficient and proper services to prevent crime and to protect the lives and property of the residents. To this end this article also aims to evaluate the direct involvement and co-operation rendered by other local authorities like the City Council of Bloemfontein and its relevant departments, the courts and the Union Department of Native Affairs, including the black community of Mangaung.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 216 –234 (2003)More Less
On 11 September 2001, events unfolded that may have changed the world irrevocably for the worst. Has anything changed? The world after 11 September is a less secure place. The events of 9/11 will go down in history as a defining moment just as World War One, World War Two and the Cold War has. Political differences have not entirely been set aside to create more amicable international relations, but have rather served to highlight the intense differences that continue to exacerbate how states view one another in the world today. There is definitely a greater sense of vigilance, improved national security and the emergence of a worrying trend in which the normal functioning of societal life is being subordinated by the overwhelming stress placed on greater security while sacrificing liberty. 11 September 2001 reintroduced the debate on whether the world of tomorrow will come to be defined exclusively according to security and military relations, and less on the more optimistic era of globalisation, which has dominated international relations up to now. Greater isolation as opposed to increased integration, characterised by globalisation, may become the norm that governs international relations. 11 September may become the catalyst for the securitisation of world politics.
The lion and the springbok. Britain and South Africa since the Boer War, Ronald Hyam and Peter Henshaw : book reviewSource: Journal for Contemporary History 28, pp 235 –236 (2003)More Less
In the build-up to South Africa's encounter with England in Perth, Australia, on Saturday 18 October 2003 during the Rugby World Cup Tournament, the relationship (and sometimes struggle) between these two countries was sometimes referred to. (For those not interested in rugby, or who prefer to forget what happened on that day Down Under: South Africa lost 24-6, and England went on to win the coveted trophy in the final on 22 November.)