Journal for Contemporary History - Volume 29, Issue 1, 2004
Volume 29, Issue 1, 2004
America's record on reconstructing a state and society. Three case studies and their implications for IraqAuthor P.H. KappSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 1 –26 (2004)More Less
The United States of America and its main ally, the United Kingdom, are currently deeply committed to reconstruct two Middle Eastern countries, Iraq and Afghanistan, after their invasion and successful defeat of the reigning powers in these two countries. Since the termination of both military campaigns the Americans have had a very mixed record of success in achieving their lofty ideal of reconstructing these societies and states to turn them into modern, stable and developing democratic states acceptable to the United States.
Author Andre WesselsSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 27 –41 (2004)More Less
In this, the second of two articles that deal with the history of frigates in the South African Navy (SAN), the acquisition of three modern Type 12 anti-submarine frigates is discussed, as well as the role these ships, known as the "President" class, played in the SAN. A review is given of the operational roles played by SAS President Kruger, SAS President Steyn and SAS President Pretorius in the years 1962 to 1985; their role in assistance/humanitarian operations, as well as their role as grey diplomats when they visited foreign countries during flag-showing cruises. As was the case in the previous article, the place and role of these frigates are evaluated against the background of the political situation in South Africa, South Africa's changing position in the international arena, as well as the international political context, with special reference to the Cold War, and the strategic importance of the Cape sea route. The article also intends to show why the SAN in fact needs frigates.
Author Genevieve KleinSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 42 –59 (2004)More Less
In the early 1990s, during a visit to the Netherlands, Nelson Mandela specially thanked the Netherlands for the role they had played in helping to bring apartheid to an end, and more specifically for their support for the African National Congress (ANC). However, on considering the actions of the Netherlands' government during the apartheid period, it becomes apparent that the government did not take major steps to help end apartheid.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 60 –81 (2004)More Less
In this article a system perspective is given to the process of constitutional state formation towards political independence and state sovereignty of South Africa. It was this politically phrased constitutional design which, despite incremental constitutional adaptations, created considerable system strain in South Africa and undeniably steered the country towards system decay and the threat of anarchy.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 82 –99 (2004)More Less
The African Renaissance - and the accompanying New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and the African Union (AU) - have become political buzzwords in South Africa. The African Renaissance is a vision aimed at uplifting Africa from its present state of widespread poverty, violent conflicts, human rights violations, the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the lack of good governance.
Author Daniel PienaarSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 100 –118 (2004)More Less
Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP's) advocated by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Africa have been the subject of intense debate in the la st two decades. However, the process whereby the leaderships of African states come to accept that economic reforms as required by SAP's are indeed necessary, or alternately come to reject such reforms, has not been well documented and studied. It is suggested that the prospect of economic aid is a powerful incentive for African leaderships to agree to SAP's, but whether such reforms are actually implemented depends on whether the leadership of the given state considers them desirable. African governments can turn such programs into an adversarial relationship with the International Financial Institutions (IFI's), particularly when programs are agreed upon, only to be reneged upon once the initial tranches of payments have been received. It is also argued that the internal political process within the leadership (the executive branch) of a given state, is of critical importance if such programs are to be successfully implemented. It examines the relationship between the leadership of Tanzania and the IFI's between 1980 and 1986 to illustrate how economic reform was only undertaken in earnest once reform-minded members of the leadership achieved predominance in the government.
Author P. LabuschagneSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 119 –130 (2004)More Less
The potential of sport as a nation-builder in a divided and fragmented society has been the topic and focus of many scholars (Cronin and Mayall 1998, Hargreaves 1986, Jarvie 1994). Since the formation of national sport federations, such as the International Olympic Committee, and the laying of the foundation of international sport, scholars have widely accepted that sport will be inseparable from nationalism and a powerful tool in the hands of politicians (Chandler 1999:138).
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 131 –150 (2004)More Less
In the years leading up to the 1948 parliamentary election numerous efforts were made to heal the political rift that existed amongst Afrikaners. The initial endeavours to foster co-operation between the Herenigde National Party and the Afrikaner Party met with little success for a number of reasons. These included previously strained relations between the respective leaders Malan and Havenga as well as the relationship between the latter and the Ossewa-Brandwag. Only when the Broederbond entered the fray the two parties started to move closer. Despite the shadow cast on co-operation by the Ossewa-Brandwag and suspicious Nationalists the relationship grew, eventually leading the combination to an unlikely political victory.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 151 –169 (2004)More Less
The Minister of Education, Prof. Kader Asmal, launched the South African History Project in August 2001. One of the objectives of this project is "to encourage the recording of oral histories". The project is playing an important role in curriculum change, with an emphasis on the acquisition of related wider skills.
Author Costa GeorghiouSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 170 –183 (2004)More Less
Culture has become a significant force motivating nation states, other institutions and individuals to act and organise themselves as they do. As a theme in the literature on international relations, culture is growing in importance. As different rival theories of international relations developed through the years, the aspect of culture often featured - sometimes prominently, sometimes indirectly - depending on the particular theory and author, as a factor which strongly impacts on how the unfolding of world events is viewed.
The 'Letsema / Ilima' campaign : a smokescreen or an essential strategy to deal with the unemployment crisis in South Africa?Author Chitja TwalaSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 184 –198 (2004)More Less
Speaking from the podium, on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the founding of the African National Congress (ANC) in Durban, President Thabo Mbeki made the following call: "During this year, we must focus on the mobilization of our people actually to engage in the process of continuing to be their own liberators, of occupying the frontline in the popular struggle for the reconstruction and development of our country."