Journal for Contemporary History - Volume 29, Issue 3, 2004
Volume 29, Issue 3, 2004
Author P.W. CoetzerSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 1 –18 (2004)More Less
The earliest political polls took place in America in 1824 in an attempt to assess the outcome of the forthcoming presidential election in which John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson were the candidates. These first attempts to quantify electors' intentions were an unscientific extension of normal journalistic soundings. No attempts were made to ensure that a representative sample was taken, but they provoked interest and caught the eye of politicians.
Author Andre DuvenhageSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 19 –41 (2004)More Less
From a Political Science perspective nothing is more difficult to understand than the nature of political change and specifically disequilibrium change. Political change or "the alteration of an existing state ... (or) condition ... (or) an observed difference between a past and present condition" becomes more and more a reality of our everyday life (compare Palmer 1987:7). The well-known futurologist Alvin Toffler (1990:3), emphasized the fact that "(we) are living at a moment when the entire structure that held the world together is now disintegrating.
Author Nico CombrinkSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 42 –68 (2004)More Less
The aims of this article are twofold: to identify the nature of South Africa's political culture or pattern of orientations towards participation in and respect for constitutional government that helps to sustain democracy in the country; and to assess the resilience of the spirit of constitutionalism in government circles, as well as among ordinary South African citizens.
Author Angelique HarsantSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 69 –85 (2004)More Less
As the foundations were laid for democratisation in South Africa a turning point had been reached in the 'war against apartheid' and co-incidentally also with the end of the 'war against nature' both globally and locally. The end of apartheid also saw a shift in the political focus to equity, poverty alleviation, land distribution, AIDS and sustainability. Sustainable development has become a key issue or component in global, regional, national and local environmental governance. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), hosted by South Africa in 2002, highlighted the importance of environmental management for both South Africa and the continent as a whole. Sustainable development is a key concept upon which national, provincial and local strategic plans were formulated. This article will attempt to determine just how 'green' South Africa became over the past decade in terms of the politicisation and institutionalisation of environmental issues. This will be investigated in terms of the reformist-institutional approach to environmental governance. Specific reference will be made to the role of the national, provincial and local governments, within the context of co-operative governance, in environmental management.
'Live and let die' - a decade of contestation over HIV / AIDS, human security and gender in South AfricaAuthor Heidi HudsonSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 86 –106 (2004)More Less
In an era of global interdependence a narrow realist focus on military threats to the state is no longer appropriate. In this context human or people's security is a promising concept, but it nevertheless co-exists uneasily with national security. Common problems demand common solutions and in that sense the HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) pandemic is the quintessential globalising issue. It is a complex transnational issue rooted in multi-faceted causes and exacerbating factors, spurred on by war, poverty, migration, urbanisation, changes in government policies, and also policies imposed by external organisations (Altman 2003:420). In most parts of the world, but especially in the developing world (sub-Saharan Africa in particular) the disease has rapidly spread to become a major health and humanitarian crisis of global proportions with severe socio-economic, developmental, human rights, ethical and security implications.
Author Annette StraussSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 107 –127 (2004)More Less
In this article attention is being paid to the insistence on and the policy of larger representation of women in politics and the extent to which this has been realised in the new dispensation. The contribution of women, especially in senior positions, since 1994, is also evaluated. Phenomenal progress concerning the number of women participating in government on all levels, has indeed been made. In each election more women came to the fore. The question is, however, posed by some whether democracy is being served by giving preference to forced equality above freedom and whether merit should not always be the criterium.
Affirmative action 1994-2004 : a viable solution to redress labour imbalances or just a flat spare tyre?Author Chitja TwalaSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 128 –147 (2004)More Less
This article explores the interesting and controversial question of whether affirmative action in South Africa poses a possible solution to redress imbalances of the past in labour circles. Is it permissible to sideline white males or people from more advantaged backgrounds in order to be seen to be complying with the provisions of affirmative action? Affirmative action became a 'buzz' word after 1994.
Ten years of democracy and the return of bad times : studying security, strategic and military affairs in South AfricaAuthor A.J. EsterhuyseSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 148 –167 (2004)More Less
The first decade of democracy in South Africa was relatively peaceful. Like most new democracies, there was a vast array of problems that the first democratic government had to deal with. Very few, if any, of these problems were military in nature. South Africa did not face any significant traditional direct threat from either the international or domestic environment. Political, security and strategic thought and approaches tended to be idealistic in nature.
Author Andre WesselsSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 168 –183 (2004)More Less
April 1994 saw the birth of a truly democratic new Republic of South Africa; it also meant the founding of the new South African National Defence Force (SANDF), consisting of members of the old South African Defence Force (SADF); the defence forces of the so-called independent states of the Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei; the military wings of the African National Congress (namely uMkhonto weSizwe) and the Pan-Africanist Congress (namely the Azanian People's Liberation Army), and the KwaZulu-Natal self-protection forces. In this study the track record of the SANDF in the course of the past ten years (1994 to 2004) is critically analysed in an effort to find answers to questions like: How successful has the SANDF been in the first ten years of its existence? What problems had to be overcome, and to what extent have the challenges been met? How strong was the SADF/SANDF in 1994, and how strong is the SANDF today (2004)? In this, the first of two articles that deal with the history of the SANDF, 1994 to 2004, the SANDF's order of battle in 1994 is compared with the battle order in 2004. The transformation process is also analysed, with special reference to the integration of the seven pre-1994 defence forces and armed wings, as well as self-defence units.
Author Leo BarnardSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 184 –198 (2004)More Less
The military hostilities during the years 1966 to 1989 between the military forces of South Africa, the former South West Africa and Unita on the one hand, and Cuba, the Angolese forces and PLAN (People's Liberation Army for Namibia), the military wing of SWAPO, on the other hand, were popularly known as the Border or Bush War. Other authors referred to it as the battle for the independence of Namibia.
Restoring the human spirit : the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the place of forgiveness in the reconciliation of the rainbow nationAuthor Marietjie OelofseSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 199 –220 (2004)More Less
The world had expected the transition period in South Africa to turn into a bloodbath. Instead, a reasonably peaceful transition was made from apartheid to democracy. One year after the first democratic elections in 1994, a Truth Commission was established for South Africa. People came from all walks of life to tell their stories - from victims to perpetrators.
Pornographers, prudes and politics : a history of the 1996 Film and Publication Act and the dawn of libertyAuthor Jan-Ad StemmetSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 221 –233 (2004)More Less
An excess of explicit pornographic videos, raunchy underwear, an assortment of sex toys and kinky leather accessories are just some of the merchandise one can buy at the porn shop in Cape Town's historic Plein Street. With its blackened windows and tacky nameplate to boot, it is a scene familiar to most South African urbanites. The only difference is that this particular porn shop is situated directly opposite Parliament.
Die NG Gemeente Kovsiekampus aan die Universiteit van die Vrystaat : 'n Historiese perspektief 1981- 2004Author Charl Le RouxSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 234 –249 (2004)More Less
The Dutch Reformed Congregation of the Kovsie Campus is in the unique position to be the only student congregation to dispose of its own church building on a university campus (the University of the Free State) and to be run, almost exclusively, by the student leaders of the church. The congregation was part and parcel of the Universitas Congregation until 1986, when it became independent. Despite the concern expressed in the local student press and in church publications about the decline in student attendance figures, not only in the country generally, but also in the Dutch Reformed Congregation of the Kovsie Campus, the church council successfully reorganised the presentation of its services and vocal music to satisfy the spiritual needs of both the traditional church-goer and those students who prefer an innovative church liturgy. In the ensuing process the church council also reformed the organisation of its services (including its multicultural services) in the university hostels, the suburbs and in the city where the students have their dwellings. The outcome was an increase in service attendance figures and the expansion of the activities of the service groups to meet the aims of successful congregational building.
100 : 10
Rekonstruksie 100 : transformasie 10
'n Tentatiewe vergelyking van twee historiese ervaringsAuthor Pieter KappSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 250 –273 (2004)More Less
Two experiences in the history of South Africa are compared - the reconstruction process after the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) and the transformation process after the 1994-election. The former was driven from without South Africa and the latter from within, though its leadership functioned from the outside. The reconstruction process can be placed in historic perspective, but it is too early to do the same in respect of the transformation process. Both aimed at a radical change of power. In the case of the reconstruction process the aim to anglisize Afrikaners was never reached; in stead Afrikaner nationalism grew and the Afrikaners took control and established a republic outside the British Commonwealth. In the case of the transformation process the change of power became complete when a black majority won the 1994 and consequent elections.
Die strategiese oorweging van realisme, die mimese-effek en habitus by die besinning oor herinneringe en herdenkingsAuthor Johann W.N. TempelhoffSource: Journal for Contemporary History 29, pp 274 –290 (2004)More Less
Commemoration is presently the order of the day in many facets of the South African society. With a view of gaining meaningful insight into the phenomenon, this study probes the concept of remembrance as a human way of thinking in order to determine to what extent attention can meaningfully be given to commemorations from the perspective of history as a discipline. The focus is especially directed towards a few theoretical underlying principles concerning realism, the memesis effect and Bordieu's habitus concept. Thought is thereafter given to the relevance of these strategic techniques so as to arrive at a more significant and better understanding of commemorative occasions.