n Journal for Contemporary History - The entwined tale of Inkie Hoyi, Washington Bongco, Donald Card, and a 'core group' of MK operatives - a foray into political intimidation and violence in Duncan Village 1959-1964

Volume 30, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 0258-2422
  • E-ISSN: 2415-0509



The years 1959 through 1964 constituted a turning point in South African political life. The apartheid state had, with the Promotion of Bantu Self Government Act of 1959, started the march towards creating self-governing Bantustans. In 1960, black people suffered the Sharpeville massacre and the banning of the people's organizations, most notably the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC).

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