n Journal for Contemporary History - The demon of factionalism in an African National Congress (ANC)-led Free State Province (1994-2004) : a reality?




In the second five years of governance of the ANC in South Africa, almost all ANC-led provinces experienced leadership problems. There were escalating inter-nal conflicts over the direct involvement of President Thabo Mbeki in the appoint-ment of the provincial premiers; power struggles within the party; the role of ethnicity and culture; ideological differences within the party and the continuous transformation from a freedom movement towards a political party.


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