Journal for Contemporary History - Volume 31, Issue 2, 2006
Volume 31, Issue 2, 2006
Author Dan KriekSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 1 –15 (2006)More Less
This proposal deals with the reform of the United Nations. It argues that circumstances in the 21st century are so different from what existed after the Second World War, that the UN should be reorganised in order to balance the interests of all countries in the world. For this purpose a new body, the Council of Continents, is proposed to replace the Security Council at some stage in future. In the meantime the Council of Continents should advise the Security Council according to consociational principles and in a manner which could lead to eventual power-sharing between them.
Author Deon GeldenhuysSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 16 –32 (2006)More Less
Scores of disaffected ethnic minorities around the world clamour for independent statehood. Very few of them will, however, achieve their goal. This is not necessarily a disaster for the groups involved because there are various options short of statehood through which minorities can safeguard their vital interests. Globalisation creates an international climate conducive to the pursuit of such lesser alternatives designed to protect the identity and promote the welfare of ethnic communities within their existing states. The critical consideration is that the groups concerned be given some degree of self-government to determine their own fate.
"Another world is possible!" Resistance to the universal acceptance of globalisation - an investigative perspectiveAuthor Albert SchoemanSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 33 –53 (2006)More Less
The sudden and rather unexpected collapse of communism at the end of the 1980schanged the way in which future political affairs would be conducted. Not only didit bring an end to the ideologically motivated Cold War struggle between the Westand communism, but it also promoted the spread of democracy across many partsof the world. After the fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, PresidentGeorge Bush of the United States euphorically announced that the Cold War erawould be replaced with what he termed as the "New World Order".
Author Alois S. MlamboSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 54 –77 (2006)More Less
Zimbabwe has been in economic, political and social crisis since the turn of the21st century. The crisis is the result of the combined effects of misgovernment,political intolerance, economic mismanagement by the ruling élite, a virulent HIVAIDSpandemic and a severely deleterious economic meltdown. Internationalostracism of the country in the wake of Zimbabwe's controversial "fast track" landreform since 2000 and the human rights abuses accompanying it precipitated theeconomic collapse. Meanwhile, shortages of foreign currency and the disruption ofthe country's agricultural industry led to a collapse of the local manufacturingindustry, high levels of unemployment and inflation, estimated at the beginning of2006 at 80 and 780%, respectively, and severe shortages of basic necessities of life.
Buitelandse vlagvertoonbesoeke aan Suid-Afrikaanse hawens (2) : die periode van fluktuerende internasionale betrekkinge, 1961-94Author Andre WesselsSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 78 –102 (2006)More Less
In a previous article a brief historical review was given of flag-showing visits by foreign warships to South Africa from 1652 to 1961; i.e. from the time of the Dutch settlement at the Cape until South Africa became a republic. In this, the second of three articles that deal with visits by foreign "grey diplomats" to South African ports, foreign flag-showing cruises to the Republic of South Africa in the years 1961 to 1994 are described and analysed. Three phases in this period can be identified: gradual isolation, 1961- 76; almost complete isolation, 1977-89; and South Africa's gradual re-admission to the international community, 1990-4, with the concomitant increase in the number of foreign warship visits to South Africa. Although the National Party gradually implemented its policy of apartheid after it had come to power in 1948, the international consequences were only felt in the early 1960s, and this - as well as the Cold War - will throughout the article be taken into account, indicating how it impacted on the country's naval relations.
Author Charl Le RouxSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 103 –120 (2006)More Less
Influx control played a pivotal role in the regulation of black urbanisation in SouthAfrica. In contrast to the virtually uncontrolled urbanisation of white people, theurbanisation of blacks was strictly influenced by decision-making processesinvolving influx control, labour canalisation, the relocation of blacks from so-calledwhite areas to the so-called homelands, and the decentralisation of industries. Froma socio-economic and political viewpoint black urbanisation remained one of thegreatest problems the ruling National Party and local governments had to cope withafter the Second World War (1939-1945). In this context influx control had a directbearing on important socio-economic issues like township planning, housing,health and job-creation - issues for which the relevant local authority had a legalresponsibility.
Die bekamping van en strafmaatreëls teen verkragting en geweldsmisdaad in Suid-Afrika - 'n kontemporêre studieAuthor Pieter CoetzerSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 121 –140 (2006)More Less
This article deals with the important issue of the combating of and punitive measures against rape and violent crimes in contemporary South Africa. Initially it focuses on aspects of the global position on violence against women and RSA statistics on this crime during the past five years. From 2002 to 2006 several actions were taken against rape and sexual violence against women and children by activists and organisations like the CSIR, the SA Police, Rapcan, campaigns in communities, the Activism for No Violence Against Women and Children Campaign, the SABC television service, etc. The trial of the former deputy president of South Africa, Jacob Zuma, on a charge of rape brought the larger issue of rape and violence against women to the fore. Light is shed on the importance of this trial for recent and future victims of rape and violence in South Africa. In conclusion the recent Amendment Bill on Sexual Offences which was introduced in May 2006 and will be passed later in 2006, and its implications, are discussed.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 141 –162 (2006)More Less
Every family and every place has a history of its own, one that can contributedetailed knowledge to the study of wider historical themes. Every individual, in oneway or the other, plays or has played a part in moulding a society. Therefore, onecannot fully understand what really happened during a particular event if thosepeople who witnessed that event and other related milestones are ignored. Oralhistory methodology provides the necessary tools to record the eyewitness accountsof a particular occurrence. This article looks closely at the nature of oral history,highlighting its definition, importance and how it relates to other forms of historicalinquiry. Its value in the writing of history and what distinguishes it from otherforms of historical enquiry are also dealt with. This article argues that another wayof finding out about the past is to simply talk to people, collecting memories andexperiences of their own lives, of the people known to them and of the events theywitnessed or in which they participated.
Die "Slag van Mmabatho" : die einde van regse weerstand teen die nuwe Suid-Afrika? Deel I : die val van Lucas Mangope se tuislandregering in BophuthatswanaSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 163 –177 (2006)More Less
By the end of 1993 it seemed as if a new era of white rightwing resistance in South Africa had dawned. Their leaders sought alliances with black leaders of the independent black homelands, especially Lucas Mangope of Bophutatswana. The latter had little support in his homeland and he abused his power to stay in control. Unrest broke out and Mangope requested the aid of the rightwingers. The leaders of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging were too willing to oblige.
Troops, townships and tribulations : deployment of the South African Defence Force (SADF) in the township unrest of the 1980sAuthor J-A. StemmetSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 178 –193 (2006)More Less
As South Africa's violent political crisis of the 1980s intensified, the SADF enteredthe internal fray - at the behest of the South African Police (SAP). The militarysupplied auxiliary support to the police in their drive to squash township unrest.The deployment of the army was a controversial move. Both within and outsideSouth Africa anti-apartheid activists condemned military involvement, arguing thatit proved the brutality of the regime and, propagandistically, that Pretoria,apparently compelled to deploy the military, was losing control over the violentconflict. The military was apprehensive about involving itself in the local turmoil.Starting with Operation Palmiet of 1984, this article examines the development ofthe military's internal role, as well as the police's justification for calling on theSADF and, on the other hand, the army's qualms about entering the internal arenaalongside the police. Finally the article will reflect on the army's approaches andconduct during its local foray.
Author Piet ErasmusSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 194 –204 (2006)More Less
The people of Opperman's Grounds are represented on the National KhoisanConsultative Conference of South Africa, and are thus deemed to comprise part ofthe Khoisan indigenous peoples of South Africa. During recent years, academicshave been engaged in deconstructing the essential nature of Khoisan culturalauthenticity (cf. Robins 2001, Tobias 2002 and Barnard 2002). On the basis of therelevant academic discourse, at least one aspect has become clear, namely that theunderstanding of Khoisan identity is frequently polythetic, and that part of thisidentity is linked to the local context.
Omstredenheid oor die ontwikkeling van kulturele erfenistoerisme : die diskoers gedurende die afgelope twee dekadesSource: Journal for Contemporary History 31, pp 205 –221 (2006)More Less
This article discusses the discourse about cultural heritage tourism, both within and outside of South Africa's borders. The various opinions that are currently held about what cultural heritage tourism is, form part of the current debate. As the discourse about cultural heritage became more heated, this facet of tourism was included as the interest of the public in cultural heritage came to the fore. The article indicates the wide spectrum of opinions that exist regarding cultural heritage tourism. As is clearly indicated in research, the subject is in its infancy. One positive point is that the South African authorities are becoming more involved in the implementation of and discussions surrounding cultural heritage tourism.