n Journal for Contemporary History - The South African Navy during the years of conflict in southern Africa, 1966-1989

Volume 31, Issue 3
  • ISSN : 0258-2422
  • E-ISSN: 2415-0509



On 26 August 1966 the first clash between South African security forces and cadres of the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) took place at Ongulumbashe. This set in motion a train of events which in due course led to a full-scale guerrilla war in the north of South-West Africa (SWA)/Namibia; a war that also spilled over into Angola and which became intertwined with the liberation struggle and, later, the civil war in the latter country. Nearly 23 year later, on 20 June 1989, the last operational South African troops left SWA/Namibia, and on 21 March 1990 Namibia became an independent country.

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