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n CPEEL Monograph Series - Policy, legislative, regulatory and institutional frameworks
The Minerals and Mining Act of 2007 and the Minerals and Mining Regulations of 2011 embody the sector's policy, regulatory and institutional frameworks. The Act empowers the Minister for Solid Minerals Development on behalf of the Federal Government to issue mining licenses. There are six types of licenses that can be issued. These are:
i. Reconnaissance permit;
ii. Exploration license;
iii. Small-scale mining license;
iv. Mining license;
v. Quarrying license; and
vi. Water use permit.
Artisanal and small-scale miners are not qualified to apply for mining license. They are entitled to reconnaissance permit, exploration and small-scale mining license. However, there are operators who do not have mining licenses and are illegally involved in mining, especially, of precious metals and gemstones. Two major requirements for a license, namely, 'proof of sufficient working capital' and 'technical competence to carry on the purpose' have pushed numerous small-scale miners into operating without mining license. The scale of illegal mining in Nigeria is widely known in the sector and across the country.
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