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- Volume 13, Issue 1, 2000
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 13, Issue 1, 2000
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Volume 13, Issue 1, 2000
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 1 –10 (2000)More Less
Commercial crimes have an impact on profit margins with dire consequences for the national economy. According to the Nedcor project (1996), the financial loss caused by commercial crime committed in 1995 was R2 640 000 000 (± USD440 000 000) and it is estimated that more than R12 billion a year escapes government coffers. In the first three months of 1997, a total of 14 024 cases involving R709 450 207 (USD118 241 701) were reported to the Commercial Crime Unit of the South African Police Services' compared to15 345 cases reported between January and March 1998, involving R993 635 638 (USD165 605 939). An increase of 9,4 percent has been observed (SAPS Quarterly Report 2/98:27,28). A total number of 59 515 cases, involving an estimated potential loss of R4 609 041 739, were reported in 1998 - an increase of 16,4 percent since 1995 when 51 117 cases were reported. The monetary value of the estimated potential losses increased over the same period with R1 810 806 338 - an increase of 39,3 percent, indicating that economic offenders became more adventurous in selecting high profit targets (SAPS Semester Report 1/99).
Child sexual abuse myth acceptance : a comparative analysis of child sexual offenders, rapists, non-sexual offenders and citizensSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 11 –15 (2000)More Less
It is generally acknowledged that distorted offender cognitions play an important role in child sexual offending behaviour (Abel, Becker & Cunningham-Rathner 1984; Allam, Middleton & Browne 1997; Blumenthal, Gudjonsson & Burns 1999; Hanson, Gizzarelli & Scott 1994; Stermac & Segal 1989). Although the precise role played by offender cognitions in the abuse process-aetiological, epiphenomenal, and/or post hoc rationalisations remains an open question (Blumenthal et al 1999; Stermac & Segal 1989), outcome research indicates that attempts to modify offender cognitions constitute the primary focus of contemporary preventive therapy (Marshall 1994; Pithers 1994; Valliant & Antonowicz 1992).
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 16 –22 (2000)More Less
In the period 1993-94, the first two authors conducted a research project involving a group of violent young offenders imprisoned in England. The sample comprised approximately one-third of those in the custodial population, sentenced as juveniles for offences which, had they been adults, could have attracted a sentence of fourteen years or more. It was the aim of the present study to carry out a pilot project in South Africa, focussing on the backgrounds of young men serving sentences for similar types of offences in order to establish the feasibility of a more substantive study, which would provide some insight into background factors of juveniles committing violent offences in South Africa and offer some recommendations regarding handling and treatment. Using a structured questionnaire, similar to that employed in England, interviews were conducted with a total of 25 violent young offenders in two prisons in South Africa. Thus the methodology for the research was similar to that used in the English study, and similar theoretical assumptions were made about the relevance of key background factors. One of the purposes of the pilot study was to begin forming a view of the applicability of the theoretical models developed in England to the South African situation. The framework of the English study will, therefore, now be described.
Author G. LabuschagneSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 23 –30 (2000)More Less
The study of human behaviour from an interactional perspective places emphasis on contextual aspects, deals with the interactions of individuals with one another in their environment and is less focussed on an intra psychic view of man. Criminal activity can also be seen as a way in which man interacts with his environment. Criminality can therefore not be isolated from the context in which it occurs.
In the South African context there presently seems to be an increase in criminal activity, a problem with law enforcement and a possible inability of correctional facilities to effectively engage in the rehabilitation of people who commit criminal acts, especially acts of extreme violence, for example murder, rape, and serial murder. Current knowledge of the complexity of criminal behaviour appears to be lacking. The interactional approach seems to be one which may bring an understanding of the phenomenon of criminal behaviour, the meaning of criminal interaction and the complexity of the contexts in which such criminal acts occur.
Author D. LambrechtsSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 31 –39 (2000)More Less
According to media reports during October 1999, Mr Justice John Foxcroft of the High Court in Cape Town sentenced a 54-year-old man from Elsies River to seven years' imprisonment for the rape of his 14-year-old daughter ("the Foxcroft case") (see Die Burger 13 & 14 October 1999). According to these media reports, Foxcroft "deviated from the legally prescribed minimum sentence of imprisonment for life" and reportedly remarked as follows when sentencing the accused:
"I am satisfied with the circumstances taken into consideration by me - the accused's age, no previous convictions and that the element of prevention and the protection of the public are of slight importance - are of substantial and compelling circumstances (as stated in the Act) which justifies a lesser sentence than imprisonment for life".
This judgment provoked criticism from various sectors of the community, so much so that there was talk to summons Foxcroft before a parliamentary committee in order to explain this judgment and sentence. At the time of writing, the author has not yet set eyes on the verbatim judgment and is therefore totally reliant on media reports.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 40 –48 (2000)More Less
"The African Renaissance demands that we purge ourselves of the parasites and maintain a permanent vigilance against the danger of the entrenchments in African society of this rapacious stratum with its social morality according to which everything in society must be organised materially to benefit the few ... To achieve an African renewal in politics, in economics, in social life and in culture we have to act together as Africans. Of this I think that none can be in doubt. The question that remains is: How do we do it? And what arises from that is: Are we willing to do it"? (Mbeki 1999:295, 298).
Against these impressive statements of intent it is ironic that only a small economic black elite has benefited most from the democratisation of South Africa over the past ten years. While the known income of black people rose significantly from 29,9 percent to 35,7 percent almost all of this increase occurred amongst the top ten percent of black earners with an increase from 9 to 22 percent, while poorer black people "actually experienced a decline in income" (Mail & Guardian 28 January to February 2000).
The South African Development Community (SADC) is certainly one initiative from which the African Renaissance vision can gain momentum. However, there are certain criminogenic handicaps which need to be addressed.
Author N. MoolmanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 49 –56 (2000)More Less
The dynamics of farm attacks are much more complicated than is usually envisaged. Although many of the farm attacks seem to be of a criminal nature and are often attributed to prevailing socio-economic conditions in especially rural areas, these attacks reveal certain trends and patterns which could point to a possible interplay of ulterior motives (NICOC 1997:9). Those who attempt to isolate a single cause for these attacks are indeed very naive in their approach while also totally underestimating the complexity of the phenomenon. Farm attacks must be studied within the total socio-political-economical interaction of the revolutionary and post-apartheid environment. Moolman (1998:59-81) identifies the following twelve possible causes for farm attacks in South Africa, i e. hatred, negative perceptions and racial relations, lost morals, a culture of violence, illegal firearms, socio-economic conditions, farmers regarded as outlaws, unfulfilled expectations, public hearings of the TRC, redistribution of land, escaping justice and revenge.
This article focuses on the discussion of the perceptions and experiences of apartheid among some blacks as it emerged from various interviews and literature study and reveals the sometimes distorted arguments which the revolutionary movements used to motivate their followers to become actively involved in the struggle. The sometimes biased political views on apartheid offered in this article are not the views of the author, but represent the political views of the revolutionary alliance which they communicated to their followers and made them to believe. Many counter-arguments can be offered against these biased viewpoints. This is, however, not the aim of this article and would be counter-productive. Producing counter-arguments to these biased political arguments of the revolutionary alliance will bring this article nothing closer in identifying the extent of the intense hatred which developed against the Afrikaner and which is currently, to a great extent, responsible for some of the attacks on the farming community in South Africa (Moolman 1998:13).
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 57 –65 (2000)More Less
Violence against women is not a new phenomenon as it dates back to time immemorial. However, what is new is its recognition as criminal assault (Moore 1979:7) and the commitment by different groups in society to bring this long-concealed criminal offence into the open (Barrera, Palmer, Brown & Kalaher 1994:333). Nevertheless, some women still suffer in silence despite the efforts made by numerous organisations to encourage them to speak out. This is attributed to the way women have been socialised to keep family secrets. They are told by elderly women that they have big buttocks to sit on their problems. The African culture, in particular, is most oppressive as a married woman is expected to live with her husband until the end of her days. The problem of wife abuse is also viewed as part of contemporary family life (Bograd 1988:11; Hampton & Corner-Edwards 1993:118).
The incidence of violent crime in the rural areas in South Africa : a challenge to indigenous institutions?Author C. NomoyiSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 66 –71 (2000)More Less
For some time now, South Africans have been swamped by reports of violent crime, and this has often resulted in heated and controversial debate. Furthermore, the violent nature of the era in which citizens of this country live - especially individuals who inhabit black townships and those in rural settlements - is emphasised in reports that appear on a daily basis in the news media. According to the National Crime Information Management Centre of the South African Police (1998), 20 983 murders were committed during 1997 and 13 698 during the first six months of 1998. The Institute for Security Studies (Minnaar et al 1998:112) reports that Interpol Statistics suggest that South Africa's rate of murders per 100 000 persons is amongst the highest in the world.
Author K. PillaySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 72 –79 (2000)More Less
Schools have a great potential as a locus for crime prevention. They provide regular access to learners throughout the developmental years, perhaps the only consistent access to large numbers of crime-prone healthy young children in early school years. Research has also identified several school-related precursors to delinquency including the characteristics of school and classroom environments as well as individual-level school-related experiences and attitudes, peer group experiences, and personal values, attitudes and beliefs.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 13, pp 80 –94 (2000)More Less
The perception that South Africa is subjected to a pervasive culture of violence some would even typify the country as the most violent society in the world has gained considerable momentum over the past few years. Violence has indeed characterised South African society over many decades of repression and resistance. During the struggle (for and) against apartheid, structural, political and social violence dominated the South African scene, while various other manifestations of violence continued backstage. Contrary to expectations the demise of apartheid and the advent of democracy did not result in an overall decrease in violence. In fact, since the introduction of a new socio-political dispensation in 1994, South Africa has been caught up in an escalating and unprecedented spiral of violence, and violent crime in particular.