n Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Organisation for service - a comparison between youth institutions in Michigan, United States of America and Pretoria, South Africa

Volume 15, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1012-8093



The history of juvenile institutions in the United States and South Africa followed two very different routes. In addition, both the management and staffing patterns of those institutions are rather different as is reflected by the fact that South African youth development centres or youth prisons are still searching for a management system that would be agreeable to most people. In the United States, the cottage system is widely used and has a history going back to the end of the American Civil War in 1864. The concept has been modified somewhat in some institutions and is now called unit management. This project grew out of discussions about the differences between American and South African youth institutions. The instrument used has been derived from the classic study of youth institutions by Street, Vintner, and Perrow's (1966) and was modified for contemporary and international use. The WJ Maxey Training School at Whitmore Lake, Michigan, was one of the institutions studied by Street et al. (1966). The Emthonjeni Youth Development Centre (youth prison) at the Department of Correctional Services' Baviaanspoort Management Area on the outskirts of Pretoria, was selected as the South African institution to be studied.

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