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- Volume 16, Issue 4, 2003
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 16, Issue 4, 2003
Volumes & issues
Volume 16, Issue 4, 2003
Author Kris PillaySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp I –II (2003)More Less
It has been seventeen years since the establishment of CRIMSA as a vehicle for promoting and encouraging academic discourse amongst scholars of criminology and its allied disciplines. As we look retrospectively at the years that have passed, it has become apparent that we have been overtaken by significant national and global events.
The birth of our constitutional democracy in 1994 and the consequent liberation of the oppressed majority of South Africans, has been hailed as one of the recent miracles of the 20th Century.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 1 –11 (2003)More Less
A review of the literature indicates that the etiology of substance abuse amongst adolescents is still largely unclear. It is, however, generally accepted that it cannot be ascribed to a single variable, but rather to a complex interaction between intrapersonal and interpersonal characteristics. In order to assess these characteristics in adolescents who abuse substances and those who do not, a multicultural group of 302 Grade 11 learners completed a biographical questionnaire, the NEO Personality Inventory, the Adolescent SASSI-A2 and the Fortitude Scale. The various characteristics of these adolescents were compared with regard to the three levels of substance use, namely low probability of use, abuse, and dependence on substances. Significant differences were found in the mean scores concerning agreeableness, conscientiousness, self-appraisal, family support and general social support between the three levels of substance-use groups. These results confirm findings of other researchers that emphasised the importance of intra- and interpersonal variables which contribute to the adolescents' decisions about substance abuse. which substance abuse and dependence manifests itself. This viewpoint and the results of the present study support a more holistic view of substance abuse, looking at the individual as a whole and, in the process, underlining not only intra- and interpersonal factors, but also the interaction between them.
However, the etiology of substance abuse should always be interpreted against the background of certain core principles in Psychology. Firstly, the multidimensionality of the etiology of basically all human behaviour is widely accepted. Secondly, there also is general acceptance of the fact that there is a unique interaction between all variables involved. Thirdly, every individual, and therefore also substance abuser and dependant, is unique and does not fit into a single formula for the explanation of behaviour. The aforementioned also applies to the domains of life in on black children. The researcher, a social worker in the South African Police Service, has contact with sexually abused children from different race groups on a daily basis. Her experience was that black children in their mid-childhood years, were very reluctant to verbalise what had happened to them during assessment. For this research, the researcher utilised 11 play techniques with black girls in their midchildhood years through the aid of a translator. These techniques lead to the disclosure of sexual abuse in all six cases.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 12 –20 (2003)More Less
The sexual abuse of children is generally considered to be one of the most despicable acts against children. Even in cases where medical evidence of sexual abuse exists, it is still expected of the victim to make a statement that will be used in the court case against the perpetrator. In the event of sexual abuse of children it is often required of the social workers to submit a report on the alleged sexual abuse to the court. These reports are the results of interviews by the social worker with the victim and are used to assist the court in deciding whether or not a child is safe to remain in, or remove from his or her present environment; whether the child the child is able to testify in court or whether an intermediary should be used. A big challenge to the social worker lies in the assessment of children of a different race or culture, mainly because of the language barrier. The professional person therefore has to rely on different techniques and skills to obtain the information needed from the victim to compile the assessment report for the court. Play techniques enable the child to verbalise his or her experience of the sexual abuse.
The researcher has found that play therapy techniques that were successfully used on Afrikaans- and English-speaking children, did not necessarily work on black children. The researcher, a social worker in the South African Police Service, has contact with sexually abused children from different race groups on a daily basis. Her experience was that black children in their mid-childhood years, were very reluctant to verbalise what had happened to them during assessment. For this research, the researcher utilised 11 play techniques with black girls in their midchildhood years through the aid of a translator. These techniques lead to the disclosure of sexual abuse in all six cases.
Security's critical value in commerce and industry and the need to sensitise executive management about the principles of securityAuthor K. PillaySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 21 –26 (2003)More Less
Following the decimating events of 9/11, and subsequent subversive activities by militant groups, the world has seen security move up the list of priorities for many. Terrorism has again raised its ugly head and instilled fear in all our lives, irrespective of where we live on the globe.
This problem has impressed a heightened awareness both nationally and globally, of the need for effective, vigilant, public, private and domestic security. This article emphasises that strategic security planning by any state security service, organisation, or private security provider is essential and it needs to take a holistic approach, from development to implementation.
It also stresses that in the private sector security industry in particular, for any security program or plan to succeed, it should form part of an organisation's business plan.
This will only receive priority only if those tasked with implementing security policies, have the support of their colleagues in other areas of business, such as the finance manager, the human resource director or the IT consultant.
The author contends that security must become an integrated part of a company's technological future. In practice, however, this message has not necessarily made its way to most corporate executives. It often happens that a security manager may go about the wrong way in trying to get his peers or employers to understand security policies. The view is expressed that security professionals have failed in many instances to properly educate senior management about the fundamentals of security.
Some of the key factors that are essential in order for the security managers to obtain the support s/he needs from senior management are discussed, while the role and function of the security committee, and the need for a professional presentation to the Board of Directors are alluded to.
The author concludes with some thoughts on preparing an operational security plan, and reiterates that today's security professionals must increase their technical proficiency, adapt to changing trends within the industry and advise their top managers accordingly.
Author M.E. SmitSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 27 –33 (2003)More Less
The findings of the investigation which explored the extent and nature of bullying among primary school children in grade four are presented. A total of 60 learners, aged between 9 and 10 years, took part in the study. Information was obtained from learners by means of questions included in a questionnaire, which closely followed the design used by Olweus (1991). Findings indicated that the questionnaire could be used to obtain meaningful responses. The main aim of the investigation was to examine the extent and nature of bullying. The results indicated a high level of reports of being bullied. A quarter of the learners (25%) indicated that they had been bullied at least sometime during the term, while 5 percent responded that the bullying occurred at least once a week and 3 percent that bullying occurred several times a week. There was not much difference in the responses given by boys and girls as to the frequency of being bullied. Reports on bullying others indicate that at least twice as many boys admitted to bullying others than girls. The problem of reported bullying and being bullied thus clearly exists in the group that was surveyed. The further findings on the nature of bullying are also consistent with trends reported by other researchers. Most of the bullying took the form of general name-calling while the use of derogatory names referring to colour and race was also prevalent. Thirty percent of bullied learners experienced this type of treatment. Being physically struck, being threatened and having rumours spread about them were the next most frequent forms of bullying. Other forms of bullying, such as having belongings taken from them, were less frequent. The research confirms some previous findings on gender differences. Firstly, the preponderance of male bullies was confirmed despite the emphasis on nonphysical as well as physical forms of bullying. Secondly, the findings were consistent with trends reported by Besag (1989), namely that girls are likely to be bullied, but not likely to bully.
Author D. SinghSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 34 –51 (2003)More Less
One cannot gainsay the reality that the South African Domestic Violence Act of 1998 entrenches many of the best practices for the effective handling of domestic abuse cases. Why then does intimate abuse remain endemic to South Africa? The various reasons and causes enumerated include inadequate social services and law enforcement interventions. However, the research study that informed the content of this paper points to the prevailing individual and social myths, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions as being a primary contributor to the unabated scourge of intimate violence. The research study evaluated the respondent's understanding of "abuse" and "violence" before looking at the respondent's belief of the proximate causes of domestic violence. Especially provocative was the lack of proper understanding of the issues displayed by many of the respondents and the ease with which "blame" for abuse was misdirected - to the victims. This finding was relevant to both the male and female respondents. Additionally, hitting, kicking, and shouting were described as neither violent nor abusive conduct. Interesting was the perceived role of family, friends, and the community in providing assistance and support to victims of abuse. The study concluded with an assessment of the male respondent's reaction to issues of power, control, and dominance. In the end, the study concluded that, despite scientific and technological growth, human rights and women's equality, attitudes to and the realities of abusive and violent conduct in the third millenium were not much improved from what they were almost 30 years ago. A fundamental challenge in dealing with domestic abuse is to resolve public and more importantly, private attitudes and beliefs to this heinous crime.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 52 –66 (2003)More Less
The indirect victim's experience of suicide and the victimisation caused by the incident was studied. The Indirect Victim's Experience Model of a Suicide Incident was designed as a theoretical framework to direct the research findings and interpretation of data. A qualitative exploratory approach was used and a group of 20 respondents was selected by means of purposive and snowball sampling methods. All the respondents were interviewed personally. The interpretation and analysis of the data showed that the assumptions based on the Janoff-Bulman and Frieze's theory and certain societal myths could subconsciously have an influence on the nature and extent of the victimisation experienced by the next of kin. The respondents themselves accepted these assumptions and myths. Research findings further showed that these assumptions are affected when the news of the suicide is received. The myths may be refuted and in this way affect the indirect victim's experience of suicide. Every indirect victim functions within a specific family and social system before, during and after the suicide incident. The way in which the indirect victim experiences the support and integration from within these systems, determines the acceptance or non-acceptance of the death by suicide of a significant other. This will also have an influence on the indirect victim's reintegration into society both in the short and long term. The need for the indirect victim to be involved within a family and society was clearly identified during this study. These findings made it possible to make recommendations with regard to the direct victim's experience of suicide. Society should be informed about the realities and consequences of suicide.
Author G.N. LabuschagneSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 67 –74 (2003)More Less
The popular media has created a misconception as to what a "profiler" is and what role an offender profile plays in an investigation. This misconception is also often carried through to academia. This article attempts to shed light on the activity of offender profiling in South Africa. It puts forward a proposed definition for offender profiling as used by the Investigative Psychology Unit (IPU) of the SAPS, the unit with the mandate to provide such a service. In doing so it also explains the rationale for the proposed definition. The article also looks at other uses of the word "profiling", both in South Africa and overseas. The other uses for the word profiling which are discussed are SAPS profiling, intelligence profiling, geographical profiling, DNA profiling, victim profiling, and psychological profiling. The article defines the concept of crime-scene assessment, something often confused with offender profiling. The role of computer databases as aids to offender profiling is also briefly mentioned. Finally, since the popular media has created the image of a "profiler" who has no other function in an investigation, the article concludes by looking at offender profiling within a context of other services that can be provided by professionals. This context is created by discussing the role and function of the Investigative Psychology Unit of the SAPS. The IPU's mandate is to assist in the investigation of "Psychologically Motivated Crimes". Within this mandate it has three roles, namely investigative support, training and research. Investigative support includes offender profiling, crime-scene analyses, interviewing of witnesses and suspects, assisting with investigative decisionmaking, managing information in serial cases, and courtroom testimony. Training is provided to detectives from various general and specialised detective units. Research conducted by the unit is aimed at providing a scientific basis to the investigative support and training roles of the unit. These three interacting roles form the basis of support provided by the unit to detectives.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 75 –88 (2003)More Less
The past decade saw significant reforms in the administration of youth justice in South Africa and the Departments of Justice, Social Development and Safety and Security implemented strategies that adhere to international criteria on how to effectively deal with young people in conflict with the law. Within the framework of restorative justice, emphasis is placed on the development and empowerment of young offenders throughout the dispensation and enforcement of justice. Therefore, it has to be ensured that service providers are appropriately trained to work and interact with young offenders. This article sets out to describe the training needs of probation officers tasked with the management of youths in conflict with the law and primarily aims to delineate what Criminology could contribute towards their training. Previous reference to the discipline's increased involvement in probation training was taken as the point of departure and findings of a Free State-based study, conducted among a total of 38 probation service providers and decision-makers, are utilised to substantiate the conclusions arrived at. Findings indicate that, amongst others, probation officers working with young offenders require training in criminal law (specifically the Criminal Procedure Act), sentencing options, matters related to the assessment of young offenders, court proceedings, and treatment and intervention strategies. Moreover, the study found that both the theoretical and applied sides of Criminology are instrumental in the training of probation officers working with young offenders. The discipline's study fields of the offender, crime causation, crime prevention, the administration of justice and the victim of crime are to play a central role in probation training.
Author J. SaffySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 89 –95 (2003)More Less
A survey was conducted during 2002 amongst 100 university students in order to assess their attitudes towards driving whilst under the influence of drugs and alcohol. The degree to which these individuals make themselves guilty of these offences was also evaluated.
The sample was made up of 57 white students, 34 black students, one coloured student, 7 Asian students, and one Chinese student. The majority students were female, representing 83 percent of the sample. Of the various modes of transport available to the students, 58 percent made use of a car, 14 percent of a bus and 11 percent made use of taxis, trains and bicycles. The remaining 17 percent were primarily pedestrians.
With road accidents accounting for about 10 000 deaths on South African roads annually, driving under the influence of drugs poses a greater threat to the community than initially anticipated. To accentuate the danger posed by these drivers, within the survey no students reported ever having been stopped by police for driving whilst under the influence of alcohol or drugs. This infrequency was, however, not reflected in their reports on making themselves guilty of driving whilst under the influence of illegal drugs.
With cocaine and disconcerting heroin being reported as the most frequently used drugs before climbing into a vehicle, it is to note that the majority of respondents rated driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol as not being particularly serious in nature. In light of the survey, a need was identified for a national research project of this nature in order to not only identify the extent of the problem, but also to implement awareness and preventative campaigns.
Author W. LuytSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 96 –111 (2003)More Less
In the article Genocide in Rwanda: Detention and Prison Involvement, the widespread killings of 1994 are discussed against the background of prison involvement in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide. In a process where more than 800 000 people died, the end result became the imprisonment of more than 100 000 awaiting-trial inmates. This created a penal crisis in Rwanda and the country became one of only 11 countries in the world where more than 100 000 people are subjected to imprisonment. Today, more than eight years after the genocide, people are still awaiting trial and estimates are that the normal justice process will take more than one hundred years to finalise genocide cases. The genocide in Rwanda brought about unique challenges in criminal justice. For the first time the important role of prisons in crimes against humanity came under the spotlight. In the case of Rwanda, at least four international prisons systems would eventually become part of the genocide history. Guilty parties will be detained in Rwanda, Mali, Benin and Swaziland, while awaiting trial inmates are detained in Rwanda and a detention center in Arusha, Tanzania, which is managed by the United Nations. At the same time it is expected of other (African) countries to arrest genocide accused and transfer them to the abovementioned detention center. Handing down justice is also done in an indifferent way. People accused of genocide-related charges might appear in any of three types of courts. At first, there is the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in Arusha, Tanzania. Secondly, thirteen courts in Rwanda also deal with genocide-related cases. In the third instance, gacaca courts, based on traditional justice, would become responsible for trying the bulk of the genocide suspects, bringing the estimate time in which genocide cases could be finalised to five years. The Rwanda genocide introduces a whole new approach to international corrections and, indeed, criminal justice. In the process new challenges develop and new approaches to traditional imprisonment need to be researched, developed and implemented.
Actuele criminologie. 4th edition, J.J.M. van Dijk, H.I. Sagel-Grande and L.G. Toornvliet : book reviewAuthor Alice MareeSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 16, pp 112 –115 (2003)More Less
There is a comprehensive table of contents as well as a Bibliography (Literatuur) with all the consulted sources in alphabetical order; an explanation of abbreviations (Afkortingen); and a subject index with relevant page numbers (Trefwoordenregister) at the back of the book.