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- Volume 18, Issue 2, 2005
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 18, Issue 2, 2005
Volumes & issues
Volume 18, Issue 2, 2005
Criminology : rising to the challenge of transformation in an effort to contribute to a safer and more just South Africa : editorialAuthor Beaty NaudeSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp I –IX (2005)More Less
When CRIMSA was established on 14 March 1986 its Constitution set out a number of goals, in particular:
- 'Publication of a scientific professional journal and newsletter.
- Strive for advancing effective training in criminological sciences .....'
Evaluation of a peer-led drinking and driving primary prevention programme among university studentsAuthor N. Phaswana-MafuyaSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp 1 –14 (2005)More Less
The aim of this study was to evaluate a peer-led drinking and driving (DD) prevention programme among a purposive sample of 111 University of the North (UNIN) undergraduate students, aged 17 to 24. Process, post-test and follow-up evaluations were conducted to determine the quality, effectiveness and impact of the programme. Overall programme process ratings show that respondents perceived the programme as somewhat interesting, not really a waste of time, not really boring, somewhat understandable, not really difficult, somewhat believable, and somewhat helpful. Significant positive changes from pre-test to post-test were observed in the mean scores of different outcome variables, namely those pertaining to traffic violations, drinking frequency, environmental factors favourable to DD, DD attitudes, behavioural intentions, knowledge as well as differential association. Furthermore, significant pretest follow up-test changes were observed in respect of behavioural intentions, risk behaviour and knowledge scores. Unlike at post-test, there were no significant changes in other variables at follow-up. The effects of the programme eroded somewhat after four months, though not to pre-test (pre-programme) levels. Maturation, and if not maturation, some other factors, must account for the decay of the initial programme effects over time. The failure of the programme to impact significantly on some of the measures, four months following programme implementation, is a weakness that needs to be explored in future research endeavours. Additional analyses are needed to determine why the changes were not statistically significant on some of the outcome and impact measures. Information generated from studies like the present one provides programme planners with data to support programming efforts.
Author K. MareeSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp 15 –33 (2005)More Less
Evidence strongly suggests that being bullied in one's early years, or when such bullying extends into adolescence, is a major cause of personality problems, abuse and other forms of negative behaviour in later years. This includes personal, behavioural, and interpersonal problems. Professionals agree that bullying is rife throughout South Africa. Seemingly it is often the physically smaller, younger, more vulnerable part of the school population that bears the brunt. Furthermore it does not seem as if schools and other institutions have clear guidelines regarding ways in which to deal with the problem, which seems to be embedded in the more deeply rooted problem of violence (and bullying) in society at large.
My current research shows that bullying has a greater impact on victims during all life stages than may have been expected. While bullies show little awareness of the possible long-term damage caused by their deeds, victims (both younger and older) indicate that they suffer greatly as a result, and that the aftereffects of bullying extend well into adulthood. It is hoped that the findings of this research will exert pressure, not only on schools and tertiary institutions, but especially on society at large to eradicate this particular scourge altogether.
Author K. PillaySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp 34 –43 (2005)More Less
Implementing a successful security awareness programme is an essential step in enhancing security within any organisation. Therefore it is important to understand that all employees, to a greater or lesser extent, need security awareness training, since each employee must act in a secure manner and in the best interest of the organisation. Recent global events have led to an increased awareness of the contribution that can be made by security, which has translated into increased risk awareness, including that relating to physical access, cyber crime and even overall business integrity.
It is being recognised that security is more than just managing security officers, doing investigations or security assessments and calling on the security people after an event has occurred. The challenge for security departments is to respond pro-actively and to come up with holistic solutions. They should then effectively communicate these solutions by means of security awareness programmes that are implemented throughout the organisation.
In this article the author takes the view that an effective corporate security policy is fundamental to protective security and effective loss prevention, and emphasises the importance to adherence to the social contract and the reason/s for training employees in security awareness. Such a policy should comprise of the following components, namely the company's security procedures, an effective communication strategy, and the presentation of the security policy across the organisation. Even the most sophisticated policy may have very little effect on security risks faced by an organisation, if those who are affected by it do not know of its existence, or understands its contents. This is why security awareness is an equally critical element in a successful security programme.
Educator recognition of and intervention in school bullying situations : the perspectives and experiences of Free State educators and learnersAuthor N.C. De WetSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp 44 –55 (2005)More Less
The aim of this article is to report, against the background of a literature review, on an investigation into Free State learners' observations of bullying incidents, as well as their interaction with adults after being bullied. A follow-up study on Free State educators' observations of bullying incidents, and their reactions to incidents of verbal and physical bullying, will also be addressed.
From the study it appears that the majority of educator and learner respondents agree that bullying was a problem in their respective schools. However, it seems as if the educators perceive the problem to be more acute. The aforesaid differentiating perception is confirmed by respondents' answers to questions on what they have seen and/or heard with regard to various types of bullying. It appears that most learner respondents were witnesses of direct bullying, and the second largest group witnessed indirect verbal bullying. Only 11.21 percent and 16.81 percent of the learner respondents have never witnessed incidents of direct and indirect verbal bullying, respectively. While direct physical aggression was the fourth most common form of bullying which the learner respondents witnessed, it was the most common type of bullying that the educators witnessed.
The data also reveals that a larger number of learners who were being bullied at school told someone about their experiences than victims who did not confide in anyone. Learners overall were more inclined to speak to a co-learner or a parent than to educators about the bullying that had taken place. Despite the fact that the majority of victims of bullying were unwilling to tell their educators about their trauma, it appears that the majority of educator respondents were prepared to help victims of verbal and physical bullying.
Against the background of the aforementioned findings, this article emphasises that educators are legally and morally bound to maintain discipline and to protect the safety of their learners. If victims of bullying are faced with school inaction, the criminal justice system may be a last resort. The results of this study, reflecting as they do the lack of confidence among many learners in their educators' capacity and/or willingness to assist them in addressing bullying at school, have significant implications for educator training establishments.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp 56 –70 (2005)More Less
Analogous to the nature, extent and characteristics of various forms of physical illness, deviant driving behaviour is viewed as a contemporary epidemiological phenomenon that calls for a causal inquiry into the underlying conditions or problems responsible for its ongoing frequency. Apart from traditional sociological theories such as Merton's strain theory and Sutherland's theory of differential association which explain how to prevent and control the factors giving rise to non-conformist (deviant) driving behaviour, alternative theorists like Howard Becker (labelling theory) and Vold (conflict theory), also seem to provide appropriate orientations to addressing the deviant driving phenomenon.
Having relied on non-probability sampling procedures, 722 observations forthcoming from self-report surveys were secured. Seven statistical scales were arbitrarily created to ease analysis of data. Cronbach's coefficient Alpha (a) was utilised to account for internal consistency of scales. Data was processed by means of ANOVA and Pearson's Chi-square computations.
Findings indicate that gender is an important predictor of deviant driving behaviour. Male respondents report the highest scores of aggressive, and females the highest scores of anxious driving behaviour. Racial differences also exist in respect of deviant driving behaviour. As far as occupation is concerned, professional drivers do not only figure predominantly in offensive driving behaviour, but are also involved in aggressive driving behaviour. Aggressive and anxious driving behaviour show no significant differences in relation to formal driver training. When cross-correlated with informal driver training, only Chi-square computations show significant differences in relation to aggressive driving behaviour. However, both ANOVA and Chi-square computations reveal significant differences between informal driver training and anxious driving behaviour. Data suggests a re-definition of both learner and driver training and testing. The institution of driver training academies across the country would do much to alleviate the road carnage on South Africa's roads.
A critical view on HIV / AIDS in South African prisons within the framework of the Dublin Declaration on HIV / AIDS in prisonsAuthor W.F.M. LuytSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp 71 –89 (2005)More Less
The Dublin Declaration on HIV / AIDS in prisons was launched on 23 February 2004. It originated from the fact that HIV / AIDS has become a serious problem within prison populations across Europe and Central Asia. However, the problem is not confined to the geographical regions mentioned above. South Africa faces its own challenges as far as HIV / AIDS in prisons is concerned. Each prison system in the world today should have mechanisms in place to deal with this very important question. The Dublin Declaration on HIV / AIDS in prisons is a research-based working document that could form the cornerstone for action from the side of correctional authorities the world over. In this article HIV / AIDS in South African prisons is discussed, while the guidelines of the Dublin Declaration are utilised to measure and describe the general performance of the South African correctional system in the area of HIV / AIDS. The prevention of HIV transmission in prisons is not the main goal of the discussion, but dealing with HIV prevalence through measures of harm reduction is a reality that needs to be considered much more seriously within the corrections environment. Therefore, the article also focuses on the importance of harm reduction practices, while areas earmarked for improved performance are emphasised.
An empirical investigation into the experience of farm attacks in the South African farming communitySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp 90 –99 (2005)More Less
The issue of farm attacks is a real threat to South African society. It can be regarded as a complex matter, seeing that so many parties are involved. Farm attacks are mostly of a violent nature and victims are traumatised at all levels of functioning. This study investigated the nature of the trauma experience and needs of victims of farm attacks. Various issues such as the nature of the attack, the experienced loss, the effect of the trauma, feelings when recalling the attack, and support and therapeutic services were investigated.
Participants were also requested to name some of the issues that they would like to be included in a trauma-counselling programme. The conclusion was reached that all victims of farm attacks should receive assistance and participate in a trauma-counselling programme. These empirical issues, together with a literature study of the topic, should lead to the development of a full-scale trauma-counselling programme. In this manner, the highest level of psychosocial functioning possible for victims of farm attacks can be attained.
Emerging trends among the South African inmate population and persons subject to community correctionsAuthor J. KrielSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp 100 –115 (2005)More Less
The daily average inmate population increased from 110 047 in 1995 to 184 576 in 2003. This represents an increase of 67, 7 percent over a period of nine years. Forecasts indicate that by the year 2010 the daily average inmate population will exceed a quarter of a million, with males representing 97, 68 percent of that total figure. Within the next ten years the unsentenced inmate population will double to more than 100 000 and the inmate population with sentences of two years or more will increase at a faster rate than that of short-term inmates. Up until September 1997 the economic crime category was the largest component and represented 41 percent of the total inmate population. Since then the aggressive crime category has become the largest component and it is estimated that this category will grow to 130 558 by the year 2010, representing more than 50 percent of the total inmate population. The number of youth offenders in prisons increased by 103 percent over eight years, from 14 172 in 1995 to 28 761 in 2002. By the year 2010 the number of youth offenders in prison will grow to 45 622, representing 17, 7 percent (compared to 12, 9% in 1995) of the total daily average inmate population. The daily average number of persons subject to community corrections almost doubled from 27 278 in 1995 to 77 435 in 2003. However, it is estimated that over the next two decades the daily average number of persons subject to community corrections will proportionately remain in the region of 30 percent of the total daily average inmate, parolee and probationer population.
Forecasts based on historical trends provide a picture of the future profile of the inmate population and persons subject to community corrections, which enables the corrections industry to address the challenges emanating from these projections strategically and well in advance.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 18, pp 116 –134 (2005)More Less
The Hatfield Court, which was officially opened on 7 April 2004, is a public-private partnership between the Department of Justice, the University of Pretoria, the National Prosecuting Authority, the Tshwane Metropolitan Council, the South African Police Service and the Department of Correctional Services. This specialised court was established to address petty offences such as pick pocketing, cell phone theft as well as drug and alcohol abuse in the Hatfield area.
Since the Hatfield Court Project is the first of its kind in the country, the aim of this study was to understand the functioning of the Hatfield court from the perspective of the police officials who work at the Brooklyn Police Station and who deal with the court on a daily basis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 police officials (members drawn from the ranks of senior management, investigating officers, detectives, as well as officers working at the Client Service Centre, the police cells and the Crime Prevention Unit). From the findings it is evident that this court manages petty offence cases effectively, while it speeds up the work of the Pretoria Court. In spite of various growing pains that still need to be addressed, all the police officials who participated in the research (100%) were of the opinion that this pilot project should be extended.