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- Volume 19, Issue 3, 2006
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 19, Issue 3, 2006
Volumes & issues
Volume 19, Issue 3, 2006
Author C.H. CilliersSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp I –IV (2006)More Less
Parole is an internationally accepted mechanism that allows for the conditional release of offenders from a correctional centre into the community prior to the expiation of their sentences of imprisonment, as imposed by a court of law. In South Africa it is referred to as a placement option into the system of community corrections.
Attributing blame to incest victims : the mediating role of child sexual abuse myths and stereotypesAuthor S.J. CollingsSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 1 –10 (2006)More Less
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of child sexual abuse myths and stereotypes on incest blame attributions. A sample of 452 respondents, who were recruited through media appeals, were exposed to a vignette description of father-daughter incestuous abuse. The effect of attitudinal, respondent, and abuse characteristics were assessed using a 2 (victim's age: 7-year-old vs. 15-years-old) X 2 (victim's reaction: passive vs. resisting) X 2 (respondent's gender: male vs. female) factorial design, with subscale scores for the Child Sexual Abuse Myth Scale being entered as covariates, and with attributions of causal blame and moral responsibility being entered as dependent variables. The results showed that: (a) the inclusion of child sexual abuse myth scale scores in the prediction model was associated with a significant increase in the explained variance for both causal blame and moral responsibility; (b) abuse characteristics and myth acceptance scores contributed independently towards the explained variance in causal attributions; and (c) after controlling for myth acceptance scores, there was no significant main or interaction effects of abuse characteristics on attributions of moral responsibility to the victim. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and for future research.
Author N.C. De WetSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 11 –28 (2006)More Less
The aim of this article is to report on an investigation into a group of Lesotho secondary school educators' perceptions, experiences and observations of school violence. The research instrument was an adapted version of Joshi and Kaschak's (1998:213-215) violence and trauma questionnaire. The universum consisted of educators from secondary schools in Lesotho. A total of 285 completed the questionnaires, of which 16 were omitted because of missing data. This study found that the respondents mostly witnessed learners being threatened, and attacked or assaulted by fellow learners at their respective schools. Only 31, 23% of the respondents have never seen incidences of physical violence among learners. Although 81, 25% of the respondents indicated that they have never witnessed incidences of learners attacking or assaulting their educators, learners assaulting their educators is a reality in some secondary schools in Lesotho. It was furthermore found that educators are not only the victims of school violence; some of them are the perpetrators of violence. Descriptions of educators initiating strikes and instigating learners to physically and verbally abuse their colleagues paint a harsh picture of rotten collegial relations in some schools in Lesotho. The use of drugs seems to be prevalent among educators and learners in Lesotho. The carrying of weapons, another important risk-related behaviour, also seems to be a problem among learners, and to a lesser extent among educators. From the foregoing, it seems as if school violence is far too common. A concerted effort is therefore needed by all role players to develop and provide schools with effective programmes to address school violence. Ideally, such programmes should merge the technological with the benevolent. However, in the light of the unpredictability surrounding some acts of school violence, and taking into consideration financial constraints, it is suggested that a humane approach to violence reduction be adopted.
Dealing with the use of force and stress-related violence by members of the police : some observations from selected case studies in Gauteng Province, South AfricaSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 29 –63 (2006)More Less
This article is drawn from an Institute for Human Rights & Criminal Justice Studies, Technikon SA research project commissioned by the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD). The research project investigated the use of force and violence by members of the South African Police Service (SAPS) in the Gauteng Province. This article will deal primarily with the findings from the series of focus group interviews in terms of work circumstances, levels of stress, stress management and counselling. However, the incidence of use of force and violence by members of the SAPS emanating from the files perused will also be presented in order to contextualise the findings of the focus group interviews. Drawing on a number of studies in United States of America (USA) dealing with the American experiences concerning high stress levels and use of force and violence in law enforcement agencies, these findings will be used to make the case for a number of different focused programmes to deal with the expression of violence and stress by members of the SAPS.
Job resources, work engagement and the mediating role of positive work-home interaction of police officers in the North West ProvinceSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 64 –87 (2006)More Less
The aim of the present study was to test a structural model of job resources, positive work-home interaction (WHI) and work engagement, and to examine the possible mediating role of positive WHI in this relationship. A random sample of 468 police officers in the North West Province was taken. It was hypothesised that job resources are positively related to positive WHI and work engagement, and that there is also a positive relationship between positive WHI and work engagement. In addition, it was expected that positive WHI will partially mediate the relationship with work engagement. To test these hypotheses, structural equation modelling was used to determine the direct relationship between the variables as well as the (partial) mediating role of positive WHI. From the results, it can be concluded that there is a relationship between job resources, positive WHI and work engagement. In addition, the results suggest that job resources exert its positive effects directly on work engagement as well as indirectly through positive WHI, providing support for the partial mediating effect of positive WHI.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 88 –103 (2006)More Less
Traditionally, criminological research worldwide has focused on the more conventional or salacious or higher profile-type crimes in society, especially those involving a readily identifiable victim. Crime categorisation and classification have developed commensurate this tendency, a fact that is corroborated by, and reflected in generic criminological parlance; thereby, it is argued, undermining focused and dedicated intervention and mitigation in the conservation / natural resource sphere. This paper, by unravelling and coalescing current dichotomies and the chiefly spurious doggerel which is historically associated with the study of natural resource crime and deviance, therefore alludes to the development and delineation of a viable, parsimonious and mutually exclusive crime category that will effectively encapsulate conservation crime and criminality. Existing (i.e. conventional) crime categories are assessed and those terminologies purporting to represent and embrace the natural resource crime remit that is evaluated. Contemporary natural resource crime semantics or aphorisms are, furthermore, evaluated and ambiguities that have been undermining the formation, until now, of an unbiased conservation crime category with its own unique identity as a vanguard to an appropriately captioned and innovative conservation criminology, revealed. Within the delineated parameters and ambit of the conservation crime / criminology field a non-esoteric and integrated schematic which is aimed at augmenting written submissions, is, furthermore, drafted. Conservation crime / criminology as developed and presented in this paper, underscores the significant contribution this field of criminology can make in comprehending the illegal manipulation and exploitation of natural resources, thereby expanding and enhancing its theoretical constructs and implementing justice through holistic intervention strategies.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 104 –122 (2006)More Less
The high international and South African crime rates in particular, necessitate urgent action. It is therefore important that not only new research should be generated, but that cognisance should be taken of existing knowledge. In this second of two articles an overview of the literature is given concerning the prediction of violent behaviour in individuals. The focus is on the controversy surrounding actuarial versus clinical predictions and the evaluation process, with special reference to guidelines for the evaluation of potential violent behaviour and communication of the risk of violent behaviour.
Peer victimisation in public schools : a comparison of the psychosocial attributes of victims and non-victimsAuthor J.J. NeserSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 123 –144 (2006)More Less
The survey results of the study revealed that more than half (53.1%) of the participants were subjected to peer victimisation at school, whereas a lower percentage (46.9%) were never victimised. Male respondents in the younger age groups, in the junior grades (Grades 6, 7 and 8) and white and coloured learners were more likely to become victims of peer aggression at school. Respondents in the victim group reported considerably higher incidences of loneliness at school, school avoidance and feelings of unsafety in the school environment than the participants in the non-victim group. Findings on the peer relations indicated highly significant differences in the responses of the victim and non-victim groups. The incidence of social isolation and difficulty in gaining social acceptance by peers at school was considerably higher in the victim than in the non-victim group. The ease with which learners who were not victimised made new friends differed significantly from the ability of respondents in the victim group. With respect to individual characteristics, the victims apparently tended to have a lower self-esteem; were prone to depression and were predisposed to relatively high levels of anxiety and exercised poor self-restraint. Findings about the family background showed significant differences between the two groups. More participants among the victimised learners, for example, shared family meals on an irregular basis than non-victims. A slightly higher percentage of the respondents in the victim group, than among the non-victims reported that there was adult supervision at home after school in the afternoon. About twice as many participants in the victim group, than in the non-victim group indicated that they were only children.
Author D. KoktSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 145 –155 (2006)More Less
Comprehending the prevailing organisational culture is crucial for organisations needing to change and / or launch new projects. This is especially true in the security fraternity, where significant challenges face the industry both nationally and internationally. Organisational culture underlies and influences organisational structure. This paper uses an anthropological approach to propose an organisational structure best suited to the private security industry. A major South African security company is investigated, and the grid group (GG) framework, also known as cultural theory, is applied to analyse the prevailing organisational structure. This model, originally developed by British anthropologist Mary Douglas (1970; 1978), proposes an effective framework for the structuring of organisations in the private security sector.
Experiences of crime in a commercial production area : utilising the empirical-phenomenological methodSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 156 –179 (2006)More Less
This article deals with the phenomenon of crime as experienced by farmers in various farms in the area of "Transvaal Sugar Limited". The empirical-phenomenological method was utilised and the following five steps were employed: reduced transcriptions, summarising the main points of the case, illustrated condensation of the case, description of the psychological structure of the case and essential structure of interviews in all the cases. The essential structure of farmers' experiences of farm crimes identified five areas which addressed the experience of crime as a theme namely anticipation of levels of service delivery by the SAPS, reaction arising from frustration at poor service delivery, crime prevention as an extension of the previous area, effect of crime on quality of life and mutual trust and loyalty between farmers and farmworkers.
Author H. FoucheSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 180 –194 (2006)More Less
Piracy is still rife in most of the world's oceans. This paper explores the nature and extent of piracy. It provides an overview of the attacks on ships worldwide, focusing on Africa. Reported attacks on ships in South Africa's territorial waters are analysed and conclusions relating to these reported attacks are reached. Furthermore, the nature of policing in a maritime environment is discussed. International law and treaties or conventions pertinent to the policing of piracy and armed robbery against ships are also discussed and analysed.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 19, pp 195 –213 (2006)More Less
Greater than ever pressure is being brought to bear on the South African Criminal Justice System to function more efficiently than is currently the situation. Hence the Department of Correctional Services published a new White Paper during 2005. In terms of the White Paper the core business of the Department is "correcting offender behaviour, rehabilitation, and correction as a societal responsibility" (Department of Correctional Services 2005:7). Case management was identified as the vehicle to bring about a shift in emphasis in the core business. Applied to South African corrections, case management first made an appearance in the Correctional Services Act 111 of 1998. However, the Department of Correctional Services has been trying to implement case management within the correctional system since the promulgation of the new legislation, sadly with mixed results and very little real advancement in the area of offender rehabilitation. A case study has been completed in one of the two existing private prisons in South Africa to investigate the successful implementation of a case management system. The Correctional Services Act 111 of 1998 makes provision for the institution of private prisons through joint ventures. These private prisons are bound by the same Act as is the case for prisons under government control. In private prisons case management legally and contractually forms part of the performance requirements that have been applicable since their inception. The selection of the particular private prison was based on the fact that the prison was erected in accordance with the philosophical and architectural dictates applicable to unit management, and caters for full implementation of case management within the system. Full implementation of case management in the private prison environment would ensure that the results from the case study could be viable for and applicable to other prisons in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to investigate, at the hand of the case study, the implementation of case management in a selected private prison in South Africa.