For many years criminologists approached the problem of crime from the perspective of the offender. Crime control centred on trying to change the offender and improving his/her environment. The subsequent failure of these programmes to reduce crime and the public call for action to be taken against increasing crime rates led to a shift in focus from the offender to the victim.
Empirical research on police cynicism began with Arthur Niederhoffer's (1967) investigation among 220 police officers in the New York City Police Department (NYCPD) during 1962 when police professionalism was very much in the limelight. His project was largely motivated by his practical experience as a police officer, and he hoped to clarify such matters as the relation between cynicism and professionalism, the turning-point in cynicism and how to restore dedication to a career in the police force.
This article seeks to provide a perspective upon community service within a penological framework on the basis of the unpublished research by Avery (1987), conducted within such a framework. Community service has not been widely researched in South Africa.
Juvenile justice systems on the one hand, has a ""treatment"" oriented caring perspective on juvenile crime, which emphasises the necessity for setting up reformatories and other training establishments for young offenders, geared towards making them useful citizens rather than punishing them for their past offences. On the other hand, the implementation of such a caring philosophy is largely through impersonal and brutal bureaucracies or guarded sanctuaries such as approved schools and borstal institutions, which combine guidance with firmness and restraint.