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- Volume 20, Issue 1, 2007
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 20, Issue 1, 2007
Volumes & issues
Volume 20, Issue 1, 2007
Author Anthony MinnaarSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp I –II (2007)More Less
Garland and Sparks (2000) writing in the British Journal of Criminology assert that: "Criminology has strategic choices to make. It can see itself as a kind of specialist underlabourer, a technical specialist to wider debates... or it can embrace the world in which crime loudly resonates and engage the discussion"
In our South African context this can be seen as a call to research action where we need to forceably 'chop out' a role as academic and professional researchers. For far too long we, as a group of criminologists serving the broader criminological sciences and applied criminal justice studies, have allowed other disciplines to exploit and dip into our knowledge base and expropriate our fields of expertise as their own.
Exploring the impact of the SAPS basic training institutes in changing the deviant police culture attitudes of new recruitsSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 1 –34 (2007)More Less
The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996, demands a fundamental reassessment and transformation of the nature and style of policing in South Africa, from denying the human rights of the majority of South Africans during the 'apartheid era' to gaining the trust and respect of all. This includes changing the basic assumptions of individual police officers with regards to the organisation and its environment. Based on the comments of a representative sample (1 168) of newcomers to the South African Police Service (SAPS) during the 2005 calendar year, this article explores the impact that the SAPS basic training institutes have in changing the attitudes of new recruits that conform to deviant themes in police culture. The research found significant evidence that most of the SAPS basic training institutes, excluding the Bisho SAPS Basic Training Institute, only served to either maintain or strengthen newcomers' attitudes in support of police culture solidarity, isolation and cynicism.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 35 –54 (2007)More Less
The purpose of this study was to determine people's attitudes towards the death penalty. The aims of this research study were achieved by gathering data from a number of respondents aged 16 and older at several churches in the Bloemfontein area. Four denominations and six churches with 400 respondents were involved in the study. A biographical questionnaire as well as a Death Penalty Attitude Scale was used. The influence of three independent variables such as gender, age and race were investigated. A factorial analysis of variance was used. After the statistical analysis, the variables found to have the greatest influence on people's attitudes towards the death penalty were race and gender. The group as a whole had a negative attitude towards the death penalty. The white group was significantly more positive towards the death penalty than the black and coloured groups, while males' attitudes towards the death penalty were significantly more positive than that of females'. The variable age was not found to have a significant effect on the respondents' attitudes towards the death penalty.
Author J . NeserSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 55 –78 (2007)More Less
This article commences with a discussion on the theoretical background of school connectedness or bonding; dimensions of school connectedness; and peer victimisation typologies. The discussion is followed by the rationale for the above mentioned study and a brief exposition of the research problem, goal and objective. The research design, which includes sampling and sample demographics, the construction of a questionnaire, the pilot study, and the administration and processing of the questionnaires, is also described. The article focuses on the empirical data that relate to the level of social connectedness of victims and non-victims of peer aggression in the sample. All four dimensions of school connectedness (school attachment, school engagement, school connection and positive orientation to school,) covered in the survey were strongly related to differences in the responses of learners in the victim and non-victim groups. With regard to school attachment,more learners in the victim group not only found it difficult to gain social acceptance by peers, but reported negatively about feelings of being part of the school. The findings on school engagement indicated highly significant differences in the responses of the victim and non-victim groups. Incidences of feeling sad and unhappy (not liking school) (p = 0,000), anxiety about school (0,004) and loneliness at school (p = 0,000) were considerably higher in the victim than in the non-victim group. Differences in the responses regarding school connection indicated that learners in the victim group apparently
- were more socially isolated and left on their own;
- felt more unsafe at school; and
- found it more difficult to form new relationships at school.
Restorative justice : yesterday, today and tomorrow - making sense of shifting perspectives in crime control and criminal justice in South AfricaAuthor H. HargovanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 79 –90 (2007)More Less
This article maps theoretical and policy shifts in crime control and criminal justice, and seeks to explain recent 'bewildering' and often 'contradictory' developments in criminal justice. Mandatory sentencing and zero-tolerance policing are the most conspicuous of these, but not far behind is the rise of restorative justice (RJ). In the midst of the 'culture of control', a different response to crime emerged in the 1980s when the 'alternatives to incarceration' perspective coincided with the emergence of the victims' rights movement which questioned the capacity of the criminal justice system to respond to the needs of victims. RJ challenges the view that justice and crime control are the preserve of the criminal justice system and that its goals can be achieved by imprisonment only. Examining critical RJ issues may provide useful insights into the way various countries have adopted aspects of RJ in responses to rising crime rates.
Author J. KrielSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 91 –109 (2007)More Less
A framework is provided in terms of which the overall performance outcomes of the corrections industry can be measured and compared to international benchmarks and achievements. The quantitative key performance indicators for the corrections industry are described in terms of their relevance to the achievement of the aim, mission and overall objectives of corrections. Practical guidelines are provided for the gathering of the related management information and on how to conduct statistical analyses of performance outcomes. Formulas are developed for statistically measurable indicators and the application of such formulas in measuring the performance within a corrections industry is explained. The performance of the South African Correctional Services is compared to achievements of international correctional systems with regards to key performance indicators such as the re-incarceration rate, the overcrowding rate, the escape rate and the mortality rate.
Policing of piracy and armed robbery perpetrated against ships : the role of interstate partnerships in AfricaAuthor H. FoucheSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 110 –122 (2007)More Less
Like all organised crime, piracy is not confined by national borders. For the effective policing of piracy and armed robbery perpetrated against ships partnerships between states in the form of treaties, are necessary. In order to understand a particular coastal state's situation at sea it is necessary to take its position on the range of existing functional international, regional and bilateral treaties into account. This paper explores the nature and extent of piracy and its threat to littoral states in Africa. Partnerships in the form of treaties between states in Africa are discussed and the ability of these states to effectively police piracy and armed robbery in their territorial waters, is analysed.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 123 –143 (2007)More Less
An inquiry based on primary source interviews and a literature study to the extent and nature of drug trading and trafficking into and out of South Africa appears to reflect the wider scope of the problem. It is apparent that South Africa is acknowledged as a supplier and receiver of as well as conduit route drugs. This paper examines the physical, social, individual, economic and political environment of the country that has attracted, facilitated and advanced the growth of the drug trade in the country. It also examines the problem of rampant corruption which aggravates these problems. The paper further acknowledges the laws that have been enacted in accordance with international best practices in this regard to address some of the issues identified, and assesses the efficacy and success of the laws. Finally, the authors reflect on the stumbling blocks to eliminating the problems identified, and put forward proposals for future action.
Author D. BogopaSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 144 –155 (2007)More Less
There is an ongoing debate about the place of traditional and community courts in South Africa. Some people feel that both traditional and community courts have previously operated in a brutal manner to address problems. Therefore they are regarded as a threat to communities and must be abolished. On the other hand, some believe that both courts should be given a chance. Those who are in favour of traditional courts are traditional leaders themselves, as well as rural communities which value these institutions. There are also people from urban settings who still see the need for the existence of traditional courts. Those who are against the traditional courts are mostly the youth and urban adults who do not value African culture any more. Another perspective on the existence of community courts is that which is prevalent in most of the South African townships. Community courts were popular during the period of political struggle to get rid of apartheid. Most of the community courts were dominated by the youth and there was a lot of bias in terms of handling cases. As a result many people were not impressed by community courts' management style. The focus of this paper is on both the traditional and community courts and their modus operandi in terms of conflict management. The major focus is on factors that make people feel uncomfortable about these courts. The research methodology employed in this research is personal experience of community courts, for example, previously seeing how street committees and 'kangaroo courts' operated, informal interviews , as well as secondary data from newspapers, texts, magazines and electronic media (videos). In the final instance, the paper attempts to suggest some solutions to the problems.