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- Volume 20, Issue 4, 2007
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 20, Issue 4, 2007
Volumes & issues
Volume 20, Issue 4, 2007
Author C. BezuidenhoutSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp I –VII (2007)More Less
Crime is one of the most serious problems facing South Africans. On the one hand the seriousness of this problem is affirmed by television, radio, newspapers and magazines that daily broadcast and publish news reports on crimes committed as well as the actions of criminals and legal measures applied to these offenders. On the other hand some criminals and the crimes committed by them are romanticised by the media and entertainment world. Even though popular views expressed about crime create the impression that it is behaviour that could easily be explained, crime is in fact an extremely complex phenomenon.
The Asian Passengers' Safety Study of sexual molestation on trains and buses : the Indonesian pilot studySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 1 –13 (2007)More Less
Sexual victimisation of passengers in the public transport sector, a mostly unspoken or hidden problem, is the topic of the Asian Passengers' Safety Study. This article contends that social problems have to be created and describes the early developmental stages of the problem in Japan. Contemporary victimological theories, which are applied to explain multiple victimisation in this field, were deemed unsatisfactory, therefore Barkhuizen's instrument, developed for Japan, was adjusted for Indonesia. A first exploratory, convenience sample of Indonesian students (N = 630) revealed a high incidence of multiple victimisation for both genders. The risk perception amongst victims, emotional reaction and communication patterns were interpreted within the framework of locus of control and shame.
Author S.J. CollingsSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 14 –18 (2007)More Less
The present study involved a case flow analysis of 200 South African child rape cases as they progressed through the criminal investigation and judicial prosecution systems. Data for the study were obtained from a consecutive sample of 200 child rape survivors presenting for medico-legal assessment at a Crisis Clinic located in the North Durban area of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) in the period October 2004 to December 2004. At two year follow-up, 45% of the cases had been referred for prosecution; 16% of cases referred for prosecution had resulted in the offender being convicted; with judicial proceedings having been concluded on average 425 days after the case had been referred for prosecution. The implications for criminal prosecution as a child protection strategy are considered in the light of these findings.
The "new" Firearms Control Act 60 of 2000 and the policing of firearms at air and sea ports-of-entryAuthor A. MinnaarSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 19 –36 (2007)More Less
Over the past five years the emphasis in South Africa with regard to firearms control was firstly placed on passing the new legislation, and secondly on finalising the related regulations. Both these two foci were aimed largely at the control of private and individual ownership, which essentially revolved around new processes of licensing via competency certificates and the re-application for renewal of existing licences. Very little emphasis was placed on or public attention given to ancillary control aspects such as the importation of firearms or the bringing in by non-citizens of firearms through ports-of-entry. However, this is one of the important aspects of the overall integrated firearm control plan for South Africa. This article examines the way firearms are moved through ports-of-entry and what control measures are in place, as well as some of the shortcomings in these measures which were encountered during the research. Three selected sites used as case studies are reported on, namely the Oliver R Tambo International Airport (formerly the Johannesburg International Airport), Durban Airport and Durban Harbour, with Lanseria Airport being used for purposes of a subcase control site visit.
Interaction between work and personal life : experiences of police officers in the North West provinceSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 37 –54 (2007)More Less
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between work and personal life as experienced by police officers. Unstructured interviews were conducted with male and female police officers (N = 10) in police stations based in the Potchefstroom and Klerksdorp areas. Qualitative interviews based on the phenomenological paradigm were used to determine the perceptions of police officers regarding work and personal life interaction. Content analysis was used to analyse, quantify and interpret the data. Police officers reported experiencing their work as stressful, in that it interfered negatively with their lives and also reported certain health implications. They further experienced some aspects of their personal lives such as household duties and family responsibilities as interfering with their work. Furthermore, they reported using certain strategies (e g communication and utilising support from a spouse or partner) as a way of improving the interaction between their work and personal lives.
Author D.L. BogopaSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 55 –60 (2007)More Less
The traditional rites of passage within the Xhosa culture is currently under siege. This paper seeks to explore some of the problems related to the old practice of initiation in which criminal activities seem to have taken the centre stage. This old practice did not experience serious problems in the past, but it is currently under attack mainly due to the fact that many families have lost their loved ones. The media has also over the years portrayed the practice in a negative light, while some members of the community are also criticising the practice of initiation. Various case studies will be discussed with a view to reflecting on some of the causes of the problems. The perspectives of various stakeholders, ranging from medical practitioners (both traditional and western) to members of the community at large, will be reflected. Solutions for the major problem will be suggested in this paper, with a final conclusion being drawn thereafter. Data for this research paper was gathered by means of personal interviews. Valuable information was also gathered from a series of workshops which were organised in 1998, and which were attended by surgeons, guardians, traditional leaders, parents, town councillors, medical practitioners (both western and traditional. In a slide-show presentation during one of these workshops the seriousness of the matter was emphasised. On-site visits to initiation schools situated next to the Uitenhage free-way in the Port Elizabeth area provided some useful information. Additional information was gathered from newspapers and articles in journals.
Introducing unit standards-based education and training methodology for security practitioners - a South African perspectiveAuthor K. PillaySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 61 –72 (2007)More Less
Over the past 20 years, as the private security industry in South Africa grew at a rapid rate, there have been ongoing concerns raised at the generally low levels of professionalisation and specialisation within the broader private security sector. Furthermore, with the provision of various training courses - often of short duration and suspect quality - by unregulated or non-accredited training centres, many of the fly-by-night variety or using unqualified trainers, there have been justifiable concerns on the side of various roleplayers and industry commentators at the lack of quality control and standardisation. Originally in the late 1980s, the regulatory body responsible for the industry, the Security Officers' Board, developed standard training courses; however these were only aimed at guards (levels E-A). With the growing sophistication of the industry as a whole, and the need for further professionalisation and training beyond that of the ground-level practitioner (i e guard) level, a limited number of educational institutions developed certificate, diploma and national diploma tertiary qualifications for security practitioners in the mid-1990s, and at a later stage a degree for security management. While these efforts assisted in the further professionalisation and growth of a security manager cadre for the industry, the need for better quality control and content evaluation of all the available training course offerings in South Africa arose. In addition, the technical and specialisation demands of the changing operations of the industry as a whole placed additional demands on training providers for the industry. These changes were made in conjunction with the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) requirements for the generation of unit standards by the industry Standard Generating Boards (SGBs). This process was further facilitated by the recent Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the current regulatory agency, the Private Security Industry Regulatory Authority (SIRA,) and the Safety & Security Sector Education & Training Authority (SASSETA - formerly the POSLEC SETA), in terms of which SASSETA would assist SGBs with the generation of unit standards as well as the accreditation of training service providers. However, these initiatives were limited to training up to SAQA level 4. In respect of SAQA levels 5-9 it remained the prerogative of the tertiary institutions themselves to recurriculate and develop new courses. This article traces some of these processes, the problems encountered, and looks at future training and educational needs that might arise in the private security industry in South Africa in order to service and provide for the ever more complex training needs of this particular industry.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 73 –84 (2007)More Less
Harsh realities exist in the South African Police Service (SAPS) that require the investigation of concepts such as "burnout" and "work engagement" in the context of work-related wellbeing. Although these difficulties relate to police officials experiencing work-related trauma, more stressors seem to manifest at an organisational level which, in turn, affect the psychological well-being of police officials. The aims of this study were to assess the validity and reliability of the constructs in a measurement model of work-related well-being and to test a structural model of work-related well-being for members of the Local Criminal Record Centre (LCRC) of the SAPS.
A survey design was used to achieve the research objectives through utilising an availability non-randomised sample (N=111). The Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, as well as a Job Demands-Resources Scale were used as measuring instruments. Structural equation modelling was implemented to test a structural model of work-related well-being. A good fit was found for the model in which perceived job demands contributed to burnout which, in turn, impacted on ill health. Work wellness was determined by the relationship between two opposite constructs, namely burnout and engagement. The work-related well-being of members of the LCRC was affected by an environment characterised by high job demands and inadequate resources.
LCRC members exhibited a high risk to fall ill due to exhaustion; they were less enthusiastic about their job and tended to derive a lower sense of significance from their work. In addition, members were seriously at risk of developing low affective commitment due to low work engagement. Exhaustion influenced the way members view their job demands, organisational and social support, as well as growth opportunities available to them. A lack of advancement opportunities and job insecurity exacerbated the feelings of exhaustion and cynicism.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 85 –95 (2007)More Less
Probation as an alternative to long-term imprisonment calls for the release of an offender to serve his or her sentence in the community, while parole entails the early release from a correctional centre to serve a sentence in the community under the strict supervision of a probation officer. Both types of sentences are thus community-base and, aimed at rehabilitation outside correctional centres (Regoli & Hewitt 1996). Probation and parole (used interchangeably to refer to non-custodial sentences or community correctional supervision), form part of the so-called After-Care Plan of the South African Department of Correctional Services (White Paper 2005). Correctional supervision has, however, not escaped the influence of role conflict which results from the two main functions, namely to enforce conformist behaviour on the part of offenders, and to provide social services to probationers. A sample of 91 correctional supervision officers in KwaZulu-Natal convincingly support the law enforcement style of supervision and the social worker-role proffered by Clear and Latessa (1993). Having expressed a positive attitude towards balancing community safety with offenders' needs and preferences, some respondents are inclined towards integrating the conflicting roles of law enforcer and social worker through the adoption of a synthetic officer-role orientation (Allen et al 1979). It is recommended that a broader survey be conducted to more accurately establish the true impact of role conflict in correctional supervision and, likewise, that multivariate statistical techniques be applied to enhance reliability and validity.
An analysis of the implementation of the Public Service Coordinating Bargaining Council (PSCBC) Resolution 7 of 2002 in the South African Police Service (SAPS)Author M. MonteshSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 96 –105 (2007)More Less
On coming to power in 1994, the Republic of South African's government of National Unity inherited a society marked by deep social and economic inequalities as well as racial, political and social divisions. Guided by the policy of national reconciliation, the new government adopted the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) to re-orientate and re-unite society towards a socially coherent and economically equitable society. The South African public service, including the South African Police Service (SAPS) as the executive arm of the state, in achieving reconciliation, reconstruction and development, was given a major role to play. To fulfil its mandate effectively, the service had to be transformed into a coherent, representative, competent and democratic instrument for implementing government policies and meeting the needs of all South Africans. In order to achieve these objectives, the government and the unions signed a framework agreement in 2001, which paved the way for the Public Service Coordinating Bargaining Council (PSCBC) Resolution 7 of 2002. After this agreement was implemented, many disputes were registered by affected members of the South African Police Service at the PSCBC via the Safety and Security Sectoral Bargaining Council (SSSBC). The findings of this research indicate that there was non-compliance, as well as poor enforcement and monitoring by the SAPS. Service delivery was thus hampered as a consequence of wrong implementation of the agreement or non-compliance with the agreement. This paper seeks to unravel the agreement and put forward recommendations in this regard.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 20, pp 106 –114 (2007)More Less
Much has been said about and written on the need and necessity for and value of support services for victims of crime. The need to support the victims of crime springs from the experience of crime as a crisis period and the period immediately following on a crime as traumatic. The reactions to trauma are as universal as the exposure to it. Crisis intervention is designed to prevent or reduce the harm that traumatic events may potentially cause. Debriefing is a form of first-contact support. This article will highlight the role of the criminologist by identifying basic guidelines for interacting with crime victims in the immediate and protracted period of time following victimisation. This article also argues that the criminologist could be the first line of intervention in instances of crime-victim traumatisation due to the specific knowledge and skills criminology affords it scholars. In this sense of the word, the criminologist can ensure a faster throughput of traumatised crime victims, because they can assist in cases where intervention by social workers or clinical psychologists or psychiatrists is not really necessary.