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- Volume 2008, Issue sed-1, 2008
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Special Edition 1, January 2008
Volumes & issues
Special Edition 1, January 2008
Author Anthony MinnaarSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008 (2008)More Less
CRIMSA held a conference from 27-29 August 2007 with the theme : Perspectives on Crime and Criminal Justice in Africa at the University of Pretoria Conference Centre. This was the first conference held by CRIMSA since 1999. This conference was a resounding success all round with more than 100 delegates attending three days of presentations, discussions, deliberations and debate. Although there were a few late withdrawals a total of 53 presentations in breakaway sessions were made with another six international speakers presenting in daily plenary sessions. Across the board presentations on a wide variety and range of topics stimulated much discussion, questions and debate with even more networking and meeting of similar minded academics and students occurring at tea time and during lunches. An innovation at this year's conference was the encouragement given to postgraduate students to submit 'works-in-progress' papers.
Author Clifford ShearingSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 1 –11 (2008)More Less
This article explores the thinking that has, and is, stifling the ability of South Africans to take full advantage of the resources and capacities available to create safety within South Africa. It further investigates what might be done to develop ways of thinking and acting that respond effectively to the high levels of insecurity that define the South African reality at present.
Author David J. BrooksSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 12 –23 (2008)More Less
Private security is a multi-disciplined industry, requiring a diverse range of knowledge across many domains. Additionally and perhaps due to the diversity of private security, security has not been effectively defined. Security has many meanings dependant on applied context and concept definition. But security is developing into a discipline that does contain a rich knowledge structure, demonstrated to a degree through the increasing educational offerings of security at the tertiary level. Therefore, if security has not been appropriately defined can a security body of knowledge be presented? The study on which this article is based critiqued international tertiary security courses (n = 104) to consider what may define a security body of knowledge. Security experts selected international tertiary security courses (n = 7) to provide source data for content analysis. From these selected security courses a table of security concepts (n = 2001) was extracted, resulting in a final knowledge categorisation (n = 13) of private security. Security knowledge categories included the following : criminology; business continuity management; facility management; fire science; industrial security; information and computer security; investigations; physical security; security principles; risk management; security law; security management and security technology. Additionally, these security categories were integrated into previous work to propose a 'Science of Security Framework'. The development and presentation of the security knowledge categories and security framework will aid, in part, the consensual development of a security body of knowledge.
Author Hema HargovanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 24 –40 (2008)More Less
In recent years the focus has shifted from the philosophy of restorative justice, to its potential for implementation and the benefits it might bring; to the ways in which it has been implemented in some countries, and likely to be implemented in the future; taking into account the legal, institutional and / or constitutional parameters of justice systems at the beginning of the third millennium. An examination of some critical issues surrounding restorative justice may provide useful insights into the way various countries have responded to rising crime rates and justice demands. Feminist questions on the applicability of restorative justice for more serious types of crime is also extremely relevant to any discussion on criminal justice reform since it is the most common context in which women come into contact with the justice system, both as perpetrators and victims. Closely linked to these debates is the question of the 'institutionalisation' of restorative justice. This article seeks to explore the various debates surrounding restorative justice engagement with criminal justice and focuses on three main issues that complicate this issue in modern societies :
- Firstly, to what extent are restorative justice schemes different from traditional justice and is it entirely new? The 'separatist vs. integrationist' argument looks at the relationship between 'restorative justice' and 'criminal justice'. In this regard two distinct schools of thought can be identified.
- Secondly, to what extent are restorative justice schemes intended as replacements for traditional justice? Should it be adopted as a small part of justice, for primarily juvenile offenders and minor crimes, or should it replace criminal justice with an evolving restorative criminal justice? Should it stand alongside criminal justice as an alternative system for resolving disputes?
- Thirdly, from whose perspective should we consider and evaluate restorative justice and the potential for its implementation? Should evaluation of restorative justice and its implementation be undertaken from the perspective of the state, where the multiple aims are crime reduction and delivering justice fairly and efficiently, or should it be from the perspective of the individual case, so that processes and outcomes always have to meet minimum standards, as in codes of practice and human rights outcomes? Should it be from the perspective of lay participants- defendants, victims, witnesses and local communities, who may have both process requirements and forward looking problem solving, crime prevention aims, all of which are more complicated than the state's simple crime reductive aim of lessening reconviction?
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 41 –60 (2008)More Less
This article investigates whether rape victims are not reporting their rape incidences to the South African Police Service due to fear of being revictimised. Ten rape victims were interviewed by two counsellors from the 'Pietermaritzburg Rape Crisis Centre, a non-governmental organisation situated in Pietermaritzburg. Qualitative data analysis of the information obtained from the interviews indicated that revictimisation of rape victims by South African Police Service members can be described through processes and consequences. With regards to the processes, themes of an uncaring attitude, intimidation and uncommunicativeness by police officials were identified. With regards to the consequences, certain themes among rape victims were identified, namely anxiety, guilt and distrust. It was found that most of the victims interviewed by rape counsellors in this study believed that the police were unsympathetic towards their plight for assistance and that they would be hesitant to seek assistance from the police in future as a consequence.
Author Robert PeacockSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 61 –76 (2008)More Less
The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the identity development of a group of male incarcerated adolescents and the committing of different types of offences. Through purposive theoretical sampling, 83 male incarcerated research participants in the middle years of adolescence were selected for participation in this study. The application of the standardised Erikson identity scale (Ochse 1983) proved to be reliable in correctional context. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that although research participants who were incarcerated for sexual and other offences (kidnapping, malicious damage to property, possession of burglary tools and possessing an unlicensed fire-arm) obtained higher scores on the identity scale than those who committed aggressive and economic offences, these differences were found not to be statistically significant. This finding concurs with the views of Erikson (1956;1968) highlighting the fluidity of responses during the stressful and critical developmental stage of adolescence. Analyses of the data revealed furthermore that the offending behaviour and subsequent incarceration of the research participants deprived them of an opportunity to create a psychosocial moratorium, thereby arresting greater interpersonal differentiation. In accordance with the process of epigenesis their delinquency was also viewed as a residue of a basic mistrust in themselves and others, a lack of belief in the future, their role and value confusion together with a lack of purpose and direction. To achieve a high level of a personal and unique sense of identity, they were confronted in correctional context with the developmental task to acquire new coping skills, though in an environment marked by overcrowding, deviant subcultures, victimisation, role stripping and loss of goods and autonomy. It was concluded that the chronological young and vulnerable developmental age of the incarcerated adolescent, his particular susceptibility to conform, together with the need to feel accepted and general quest for behavioural directives rendered him in particular vulnerable to societal strain, institutional and interpersonal victimisation as well as subsequent devaluation of identity.
Author Michelle OvensSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 77 –95 (2008)More Less
Both domestic and international research indicates that no conclusive evidence exists that drug abuse during pregnancy has long term harm on the foetus. On the other hand, alcohol has been proven to be the biggest cause of preventable birth defects. This lack of evidence on the possible harm that substance abuse may cause a foetus has resulted in researchers paying less attention to maternal substance abuse and predominantly concentrating on alcohol abuse. This leaves experts and practitioners dealing with pregnant substance abusers in a dilemma. South Africa does not have adequate drug legislation that will empower the latter individuals to intervene and offer treatment to pregnant drug dependants. The Director of Research for SANCA, Dr Dawid Fourie, has expressed the need for research in order to develop a sound foundation for drug policy regarding maternal substance abuse. This article explores areas which need to be researched in order to develop a policy that would be beneficial to pregnant substances abusers and also protect the unborn foetus. This article highlights the need for a model to deal with the pregnant drug dependent and the fact that current South African legislation does not provide for effective measures to make this possible.
Author Michelle De Neuilly RiceSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 96 –116 (2008)More Less
Heroin is a highly addictive substance and the abuse thereof leads to the gradual increase of doses in order to have the same effect as previously. This may place financial strain on the abuser and lead to criminal behaviour, especially committing property crimes, aimed at supporting the heroin abuse. The family is often the victims of these crimes and this places both emotional and financial strain on the family members. This article is based on a current masters degree study which examines the impact heroin abuse has on the family as well as the perspective of the heroin abuser on the victimisation of the family. This qualitative study will be explorative in nature and semi-structured interviews will be conducted with heroin abusers and their families at Elim clinic, a rehabilitation centre in Gauteng. The heroin abusers that will be included in the study include those who are under the age of 24, unmarried and currently being treated at Elim clinic for heroin abuse. The family will be defined separately in each individual case as all family structures and members that are included differ. In the proposed study the experience of the family of the heroin abuser will be explored. This experience will be related to their feelings of victimisation and the emotional and financial impact the presence of a heroin abuser in the family has on them. The heroin abusers' perspective will be of importance as this might shed light on whether they perceive their family as victims as well as the impact the heroin abuse has on them. The aim of the article is to discuss the proposed study and the possible impact it could have for the field of drug studies and victimology. Previous research related to the topic will be critically discussed and integrated with the proposed study as part of the article.
Author Anni HesselinkSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 117 –130 (2008)More Less
Train surfing is conduct deemed irrational and irresponsible to many non-surfing individuals. However, for the riders themselves, this thrill-seeking and risky activity means to be brave (fearless or courageous), facing fear, respect, status, courage, acknowledgment, recognition, skill and talent to ride, dance, manoeuvre, surf and survive the fast moving trains. Internationally, and in South Africa, "surfism" (train surfing), seems to fulfil youngsters' need for risk, adventure and high-risk test of courage. Although train surfing is a growing phenomenon on a national and an international (America, Berlin, Brazil, Britain and Hamburg) level, scientific publications related to this high-risk activity are scarce. This article (work-in-progress) highlights qualitative research findings related to nine juvenile male train surfers of Soweto, Gauteng, and reports on the participants in-depth, first-hand experiences and feelings pertaining to their involvement in train surfing.
Exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) of violent, economic and sexual offenders in the city of Tshwane, South AfricaAuthor Gregory BreetzkeSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 131 –149 (2008)More Less
While local researchers postulate the proximate causes of crime, few spatial-ecological studies have been used to investigate the location of offenders. In this study, for the first time in a South African context, the spatial origin of offenders across three crime categories are investigated : violent, economic and sexual. The cause of these spatial patterns of offenders within the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM) are examined using variables and indices informed by common ecological theories of crime as input into a series of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Spatial Lag (SL) regressions. Comparisons of the log likelihood function measure across the models indicate a slightly better fit of the spatial lag specification to that of the OLS regression. The findings of the study indicate that the location of offenders within Tshwane appears to be associated with the spatial incidence of two broad factors - unemployment and high residential mobility. Results of this study not only reveal interesting insights into the racially defined nature of South African society, but more importantly shows how the spatial origin of offenders are driven predominantly along racially defined regions within the CTMM. The highlighting of such 'high offender' areas as well as other factors such as the increasing incidences of black Africans in the media as criminal offenders, and the greater number of black Africans in prisons in South Africa, tend to reinforce the racially based stigma that is often attached to crime in the country. These traditionally black African suburbs are however, shown in the study to be among the poorest within the CTMM with high levels of unemployment and migration, a remnant of apartheid era policies of relocating non-whites from the traditional white suburbs into slums on the periphery of the city. A number of policy solutions are offered to reduce the amount of offenders emanating from specific regions within the Tshwane municipality.