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- Volume 2008, Issue sed-3, 2008
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Special Edition 3, January 2008
Volumes & issues
Special Edition 3, January 2008
Author R. PeacockSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp I –II (2008)More Less
This special Criminological and Victimological Society of Southern Africa (CRIMSA) conference edition of Acta Criminologica is the final of three editions of select papers presented at the Perspectives on Crime and Criminal Justice in Africa conference hosted during 2007. It testifies to a diverse range of topics, allowing also for "work in progress" to accommodate the efforts of young researchers in Africa. From the contributions received at the conference - published also in the other two special conference editions - it is evident that the young science of Criminology and its related areas of scientific inquiry are indeed experiencing a golden era. It would be interesting to continue to observe its relationship with other domains if only to note the evolution and scientific nature of a burgeoning young science. Affirming the scientific nature of criminology, its autonomous and independent status, its non-speculative and non-normative character, Fattah (2008) refers to the fundamental differences between criminology and criminal law for instance.
Author C.M.B. (Beaty) NaudeSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 1 –10 (2008)More Less
Criminologists in South Africa have been debating the registration of a professional regulatory board for criminologists since 1994 when the then Criminological Society of Southern Africa (CRIMSA) appointed a professionalisation committee to investigate the matter. A survey by this committee found that 91.8% of the respondents surveyed supported mandatory registration on a minimal entry qualification together with a Professional Code of Ethics. The CRIMSA syllabus committee furthermore found that there was over specialisation and a lack of inter-university liaison and that criminology should become more professional. This paper will give an overview of the work of these two committees and the qualifications later developed by the Criminology and Criminal Justice Standards Generating Body. The case for a regulatory body for criminologists will then be assessed in terms of the following :
- The need to regulate uniform training standards
- The tasks of a professional regulatory board
- Protection of society and vulnerable individuals
- The types of work performed by criminologists.
Author Brenda BeukmanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 11 –23 (2008)More Less
The formal teaching of criminology in South Africa started in 1949 at the University of Pretoria, followed by the University of South Africa in 1958. Since 2000 there is a global move away from so-called analytical criminology to experimental criminology. The inauguration of the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) and the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) facilitated the rise of professions in South Africa. SAQA classified Criminology in NSB field 08: Law, military sciences and security in the sub-field safety and society (Naudé 2001:3). The groundwork therefore has been laid for the professionalising of criminology in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to give a broad overview of the services offered by a South African trained Criminologist in private practice. This article is based on research that was conducted by the author for the purposes of the Dlitt et Phil degree (UNISA) and was presented at the Criminological and Victimological Society of Southern Africa conference in 2007. The services that will be discussed pertain to victim empowerment in the form of debriefing and victim impact statements as well as assessing juveniles for the purposes of diversion. This article furthermore critically discusses the professionalisation process of the study field of criminology.
Evaluating the implementation of community policing globally : transitioning from community partnership to crime mapping and strategic deployment in the new milleniumAuthor James F. AlbrechtSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 24 –47 (2008)More Less
In the 1980s, police administrators in the USA implemented community policing initiatives based on research conducted by Herman Goldstein and Robert Trojanowicz. Quickly becoming the buzz word of educated law enforcement executives, and aided by federal funding under the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) program of the US Department of Justice, community policing became a recognized program in almost every local American police agency. Police commanders routinely boasted of their strong ties and cooperation with their communities. However, in the late 1990s, the success of the more proactive 'zero tolerance' philosophy and computerized crime analysis in some large municipalities drew attention away from community policing, as crime rates declined nationally. Law enforcement agency funding moved to enhanced technology and crime mapping. Ultimately the tragic events of 11 September 2001 brought an end to community policing as the predominant emphasis of law enforcement agency deployment in the United States. The contemporary need for counter-terrorism measures and the ready availability of federal grants to undertake these new responsibilities has brought community policing to the brink of extinction within the USA. While no police commander would openly note any decline in their police-community partnership, the reality is that these endeavors have dramatically declined, at a time when many constituents, particularly those from minority communities, allege police abuse and racial bias. However, community policing and the problem solving concept have brought increased vigor to law enforcement practices in other nations. Community policing programs implemented in South Africa, Israel and Europe will be examined in this article, but these evaluations appear to reflect the trend within the USA (specific reference in this article is made to the case of and implementation by the New York City Police Department (NYPD)). Widespread use of technology has superceded the 'personal touch' of community policing and actually has moved local law enforcement officials away from direct contact with the public that they serve.
Author Christiaan BezuidenhoutSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 48 –67 (2008)More Less
Police cannot operate without information from and on the community. This is why the birth of Intelligence Led Policing (ILP) was so significant to the police. ILP is a concept that is widely used but the operational definition of the full meaning of the concept is still vague. For the purposes of this contribution ILP refers to a recent shift or change in crime control thinking and the related policing practices. Intelligence gathering by means of different tactics and the proactive strategies designed around the gathered information explains the basic meaning of ILP. This new era of proactive and ILP is also known as the police revolution. Although 'intelligence-led' policing can officially be traced back to the 1830s where evidence exists that the warranted tampering with mail in the name of intelligence gathering and safety was condoned, a clear demarcation of its boundaries and substance does not exist. It can be argued that ILP is important in order to monitor airports and ports and to infiltrate terrorist groups or syndicates for national security (e.g. to avoid a duplication of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack in the USA). Proactive policing involves community policing (CP) and voluntary community involvement with greater emphasis on crime prevention and problem solving. The main difference between CP and ILP is the typical absence of voluntary consent in the case of ILP. As noble as CP or partnership policing may seem, both are not doing well, especially in South Africa (SA), since communities still do not trust the police. The South African Police Service (SAPS) and other police agencies globally are therefore forced to use ILP and other techno tactics to gather information on the populace. The question one needs to ask, with cognisance of the fact that police and community relations are in trouble, is: Is the intention of ILP political or in all honesty to police pro-actively?
Author Bernadine BensonSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 68 –78 (2008)More Less
This article discusses individual perceptions of police corruption as well as the possible causes thereof. The research was undertaken at three different police stations, namely Pretoria Moot, Garsfontein and Mamelodi police stations in Pretoria (Tshwane). A predominantly quantitative approach was used during which a structured questionnaire was developed with closed-ended questions and an open-ended section for general comment. Subsequently, statements based on the aforementioned facets were prepared and presented to the respondents with the aim of obtaining the perceptions of the civilians (administration clerks and typists) and police officials (uniformed members and detectives). The findings reveal what the respondents perceived as causative factors contributing to corruption in the SAPS. The recommendations and conclusions are based on the research findings.
The guardians of safety and security : police perceptions of the causes of misconduct within the Grahamstown policing areaSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 76 –91 (2008)More Less
Although much has improved over the past decade in the South African Police Service (SAPS) since the dark days of apartheid, a glaring fault line in the transformation process has been the high levels of police abuse of power and misconduct. This is manifested particularly as a challenge of widespread police corruption and ill-discipline which has hindered the legitimacy of the police organization in the eyes of a substantial proportion of the South African public, (Rauch: 2000:20). The objective of this paper therefore is to understand police perceptions of misconduct within the Grahamstown Policing Area. The research methodology employed was largely quantitative. The data was obtained through administering questionnaires to pre-selected police members in Alice and Grahamstown policing precinct. Members listed the following conditions as reasons for misconduct : ineffective management, the role of unions, reporting misconduct and types of misconduct. They believed that some of the managers were not efficient and that results in ill treatment of members and in favouring others. Those not favoured feel despair, lose hope and resort to misconduct as a solution to their frustrations. When a member has done well and is not appreciated and is lambasted for making a minor error he / she feels disillusioned. Most of the members (ninety percent) maintained that they will report misconduct against colleagues because they believe that :
- it serves as a corrective measure.
- nobody is above the law
- those who contravene the law must be punished.
- they will be regarded as accomplices if they do not report the misconduct.
- It will impact on service delivery if perpetrators are not disciplined.
- Poor performance should be identified and rectified and good performance should be recognised and rewarded;
- All members irrespective of ranks should be engaged in workshops for deliberations on the code of conduct;
- It should be the responsibility of management to ensure that all members understand the code of conduct.
Author Gusha Xolani NgantweniSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 92 –108 (2008)More Less
The aim of this article is to examine selected crime prevention issues in the South African context and compare these with the Zambian situation. These relate to the control of the retail liquor market for purposes of crime prevention; control of the proliferation of firearms together with other operational aspects of policing in the two countries. The Zambian aspects of the study were observed in that country during a month period in which six cities and towns were visited. A number of units and officials of the Zambian Police Service, civil society organisations and municipalities were visited. Unobtrusive observations were made and in other instances unstructured interviews were conducted. The South African part of the study is based on practical police experience that spans fourteen years, as well as a study of available literature. South Africa has high rates of violent crime that seem to be a direct and indirect result of its policies on key factors. In the mid 1990s, 80% of the South Africa retail liquor market was estimated as being illegal. There has been no significant shift since then. The Medical Research Council in South Africa recently indicated that 46 per cent of all unnatural deaths in the country are linked to alcohol consumption. The country's Minister of Safety and Security publicly stated that in over 50 per cent of murders, firearms were used. Whilst the differences in terms of the economies between the two countries, as well as the political histories, cannot be ignored, it is important to note Zambia has taken very different approaches to many aspects that lead to the confluence of violent victimisation and crime. In Zambia, both the retail liquor market and the proliferation of legal guns, and illegal guns are strictly controlled. In other areas of crime prevention in Zambia, more successful approaches were also noticed.
The emerging paradigm : trauma / attachment / the interpersonal brain in the understanding and treatment of violence and sexual violenceSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 109 –120 (2008)More Less
This article describes the theoretical background and practical applications of using a brain-trauma-based approach in the treatment of violent adolescents and adults. The authors are clinical professionals. John Bergman is a Master Teacher of Dramatherapy with more than 25 years of experience working in the rehabilitation and corrections systems of Australia, New Zealand, Europe and the United States. Debra Tatum is a Licensed Professional Counselor who works in consultation and private practice in Australia, New Zealand and the USA. The article is a descriptive discussion of theory and application rather than a research study. The 'clients' referred to are depictions of various actual cases that have been combined for effective representation. There is a glossary appended containing definitions of basic neurobiological terms.
Author Maura RobinsonSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 121 –133 (2008)More Less
During 2005 / 2006 the researcher, as part of her Master of Social Sciences degree, conducted a study in order to "investigate and experience the use of focus group interviews as a technique of data collection in qualitative research in the study field of Criminology". As a practical application of the use of focus groups, student opinions on the nature and amount of violence on television; on the influence of specific television programmes on their own and others' behaviour, attitudes and beliefs; on the adequacy of broadcasting control and parental control with respect to the viewing of violent and criminal television programmes; and on which kind of violent television programme clips might have the greatest influence upon the opinions of these participants were explored. In order to achieve this, the opinions, regarding violence on television, op undergraduate and postgraduate students of the University of the Free State, irrespective of gender, age, race, and language, as well as the impact of certain violent television programme clips upon the opinions of these students, were focused upon. It was found that most views offered by the participants corresponded to those already mentioned by previous researchers and theorists, for example that televised violence and crime can lead to general feelings of fear and trepidation. More importantly, through the various methodological achievements and failures that were experienced whilst conducting the focus groups, the researcher became aware of the various advantages and limitations with respect to using focus groups for criminological research, e.g. very little cost was involved in setting up this study, and direct contact with the participants were achieved, but, on the other hand, difficulty was experienced in assembling the different groups and in keeping certain participants from either offering too many or too few opinions. Even though the researcher was trained in interviewing techniques and had ample theoretical knowledge, the researcher quickly found that she was a mere amateur with reference to the knowledge and the implementation of focus groups. However, even though the researcher failed to achieve a 'perfect' methodology whilst conducting the research, and could have benefited from more specific and less hasty preparation and practical training in the conducting of focus group interviews, relevant opinions and information could still be found on the topic. In this article the researcher shares some of her personal, subjective experiences regarding various aspects of the focus group interviews, namely : how the various groups were conceived and conducted; what advantages for research and achievements did the researcher experience whilst conducting the focus groups; what negative aspects could be identified; whether these negative aspects were experienced only due to the researcher's insufficient preparation and faults; and whether the use of focus groups can truly be beneficial for Criminological research. The researcher believes that if one does not actually go out and try to do something in a practical manner, how else will you truly gain experience? Hopefully, though practice gained, the researcher and others can benefit from focus groups interviews. This article outlines the researcher's experiences in collecting research information from these focus group interviews and postulates some advice for young researchers undertaking focus group interviews for the first time.
Author Lorraine Van ZylSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 134 –149 (2008)More Less
The impact of farm attacks on primary and secondary victims is often unknown and unacknowledged. For the purpose of this article, the researcher aims to explore and identify the possible consequences a victim of farm attacks might experience by conducting a literature study. The researcher will furthermore focus on the psychological impact of farm attacks on primary and secondary victims whom do not receive any treatment or counselling by identifying possible psychological consequences these victims of trauma might experience. The psychological consequences of a traumatic incident (in this case, a farm attack), and possible psychological needs will be identified. Psychological theories regarding the reactions of victims will be identified which can aid researchers and service providers to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of victims of violent crimes. By supporting a victim, he / she may be assisted in coping or regaining control of the situation they find themselves in after an attack. This research might provide victims and service providers with information on how to assist these victims in making the necessary mindset change in order for them to function on a level required for day-to-day living. Ultimately the researcher aims to create awareness through this article among service providers and tertiary institutions regarding the severe psychological trauma a survivor of this crime might endure. Due to the lack of support or victim empowerment programmes for victims of these crimes, a call is made upon these role players who may possibly be able to make a difference in these victim's lives by creating such programmes and addressing their needs as indicated in this article. If possible Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder goes undiagnosed and untreated the victim's functioning might be impaired to a significant extent for the rest of their lives. The lack of resources and referral systems for victims of farm attacks will be explored and suggestions will be made by the researcher to hopefully assist in preventing further psychological damage in the victim through the utilisation of existing service providers or by proposing the need of a victim empowerment programme for this purpose.
Author Charles RogersSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2008, pp 150 –166 (2008)More Less
In the South African context, specifically within the corporate environment, it is essential that a uniform approach in terms of the management of risks that result from criminal, irregular and / or unethical conduct, be professionally implemented. This is in order for private sector security risk managers to be able to manage security (crime) risks more effectively and with as little expenditure as possible, i.e. cost effective. In essence, security risks confronting organizations must be managed in a security-discipline specific, integrated and systematic manner that is based on acceptable management, legal, financial, security, technological, engineering, safety and business principles. Gone are the days when a retired policeman or even a former military person could merely step into the position of a senior security manager, and successfully manage crime (security) risks. The modern corporate demands for effective security in the private sector no longer make it acceptable or allow for an ad hoc approach to security risk management. In order to facilitate an effective approach to the management of security a security risk management model has been developed by the Department for Security Risk Management at UNISA for their National Diploma and BTech degree, and has been applied by hundreds of security risk managers within the South African environment over the last few years (since the implementation of the degree in 1997). The model is the result of integrating various security activities. The model has thus been adapted, inter alia from the work of leading authors, researchers and security managers such as Broeder, Fennely, Pupura, Roelofse, Botes and Scheepers. While its primary aim is the management and analysis of risks facing corporations and businesses these risks are often largely of a criminal nature. This article examines this model with emphasis on the identifying, measurement (establishing probability) and analysis (vulnerabilities and security measure weaknesses that lead to exploitation of opportunities) of the crime risks.