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- Volume 2010, Issue sed-2, 2010
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Special Edition 2, January 2010
Volumes & issues
Special Edition 2, January 2010
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp I –II (2010)More Less
These two Special Editions of the Society's Journal, Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology represent, once again, an opportunity to academics, practitioners and students to publish their conference papers as presented at the September 2009 CRIMSA conference. The Bi-annual CRIMSA Conference held on the Muckleneuk Campus of the University of South Africa in Pretoria from 28 - 30 September 2009, saw more than 50 papers being presented, with papers being accommodated under the following categories: social anthropology; crime prevention; criminal & restorative justice; criminology; penology; policing; and victimology. A total of 28 papers (some student / work-in-progress papers) were submitted for consideration for publication in special editions of the Society's journal.
An exploration of a traditional African paradigm in a postmodern world with specific reference to criminologySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 1 –10 (2010)More Less
Circularity can be applied in the analysis of African philosophy and should be kept in mind when African theories of crime are explored. Too often existing theoretical assumptions have blind spots and attempts are made to explain causality of crime from a linear perspective. Rather, a two-dimensional approach to causal explanation in African thought should be considered. The African epistemology is explored, including the nature and origin of our knowledge of African theory and philosophy. Throughout history, the fabric of African society has been influenced, changing both the pattern and search for knowledge to distinguish between African and Western philosophy and the affect on theory. The basis of African theories or paradigms should thus be established by examining and extrapolating upon existing theories derived from the fields of philosophy and psychology in South Africa. This article has investigated these very principles that underpin the development of an African theory (perspective, paradigm) to crime in South Africa. The theory or approach to crime and criminal behaviour explored and illustrated within this article is in no way proposed to be complete or the only way to explain this encompassing phenomenon of crime as it takes place in South Africa, but rather strives to generate critical discourse in the field of criminology and related social sciences.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 11 –24 (2010)More Less
This article is based on research that was inspired by rigorous dialogue at the Criminology Association of South Africa (CRIMSA) Conference, held in August 2007 Pretoria, South Africa. Criminology as a discipline, in the 21st century, is presenting itself at a time for leading transformation in South Africa and internationally. In the countenance of globalization, economic, political and social change Criminology has to survive and maintain its exclusive identity. What Criminologists study has changed over the decades, many interdisciplinary synergies have been established and the contribution of Criminology is acknowledged not only within the discipline but also in government and non-governmental policy making circles. This research is an analysis of the discipline of Criminology and examines it through the eyes of what academics are saying about the impending professionalisation of the discipline. This article stimulates debate on how professionalisation of the discipline in South Africa should take place. This article further presents the pros and cons of various individual views on the topic under discussion. It advocates academics to actively participate in the debate on the need for equity and transformation; promotion of African Criminologists; and the future position of Criminology; in the academic world and the communities in which and for which we work.
Author Hema HargovanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 25 –41 (2010)More Less
The South African government has made significant commitments towards protecting victims' rights. In response to the alarmingly high rates of reported and unreported domestic violence incidents, policies on victims are to be found in a range of legislative and policy provisions interalia: Services Charter for Victims of Crime; Bill of Human Rights in the South African Constitution and the Domestic Violence Act 116 of 1998. Interest in domestic violence has been growing in the restorative justice movement for many years, particularly on the academic level. In most western countries the realisation that these cases pose higher risks for victims, the lack of resources to properly address the dynamics of domestic violence, that mediators / facilitators need to have a deeper understanding, knowledge and training when dealing with domestic violence issues and a reluctance on the part of the criminal justice system to refer cases to restorative justice processes has meant that actual work in restorative processes with victims of domestic violence has been scarce. However, the scenario in South Africa is slightly different. Statistics from the National Prosecuting Authority, as well as recent evaluations of referrals to restorative justice processes indicate that prosecutors are not averse to referring domestic violence cases, where it is deemed appropriate. A growing number of cases are being referred to restorative justice service providers such as 'The Justice and Restoration Programme' in Phoenix, KwaZulu-Natal. This article outlines the findings of a pilot study on how victims of domestic violence experience restorative justice processes (victim-offender mediation and victim-offender conferencing) and re-offending.
Author Lazarus MoeletsiSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 42 –56 (2010)More Less
Conservation issues within criminological research have been and still remain a neglected area of research. Traditionally, criminological research relating to environmental issues has examined the correlation between social demographic characteristics, environmental hazards, and geographical spatial patterning of crime, thus excluding the illegal exploitation of natural resources. The focus of this article will be on conservation criminality and victimisation. It is argued that conservation criminality and victimisation constitute a serious violation that warrants much needed attention for better understanding of the phenomena. The article is based on a literature study on conservation studies within criminological research. From the study it emerged that there is a huge gap in literature relating to issues of conservation criminality and victimisation. There is therefore a need for the study of conservation issues within a uniquely criminological context. The article will explore ways in which such research gaps could be addressed.
Cultural profiling : the (ab)use of cultural beliefs in criminal profiling in witchcraft-related cases in the Eastern CapeAuthor Theodore Stephen PetrusSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 57 –68 (2010)More Less
This article aims to explore the role of cultural profiling within the context of witchcraft-related crime. The concept 'cultural profiling' is discussed in relation to the perhaps more familiar criminological concept of "criminal profiling". The article seeks to determine whether or not there are similarities or differences between cultural and criminal profiling, and also how cultural profiling may be used or abused within the context of a specific type of crime that can be called witchcraft-related. Some scholars have referred to the idea of 'cultural policing', implying that certain crimes, or what could be defined as crimes, are culturally specific, and depend on the consensus of 'the people' to be defined as crimes. This suggests that in such culturally specific definitions of crime, there may also be culturally specific ways of profiling those who are most likely to engage in such crimes. Witchcraft is an example of such a culturally specific crime. Based upon the author's research in Mpondoland in the Eastern Cape, the article illustrates how cultural profiling can influence perceptions of crime and perpetrators in witchcraft-related cases. This is relevant to law enforcement, in that it sheds some light on how and why there may be vastly differing perceptions between communities and law enforcement of crime and criminals, as a consequence of the different ways of profiling.
Author Doraval GovenderSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 69 –83 (2010)More Less
During the early 1990s, up until the new democratic government took office in 1995, there was widespread criticism directed at the South African Police. Much of the criticism was directed at the external and internal environments of the police force. A great deal of this criticism came from academics and researchers. However, much of this was aimed as assisting the new South African Police Service being rationalised, restructured and amalgamated into one police service. A policing service that would enjoy legitimacy among all the communities of South Africa, and not only by a privileged minority. Since 1995, the police were involved in policing a changing society. According to De Vries (2008:133), as far as guidance towards continued democratic policing is concerned, it was necessary that the leaders of the police department should have developed clear policies to address the criticism. The time has come to take stock of what happened since 1995 to date, in relating to these criticisms. The article traces the history of the criticism by examining the external and internal environments of the policing milieu, looking at facets such as politics, social, economics, international, technology, culture, ecology, restructuring, community policing and crime prevention, service style of policing, training, displacement of goals, bureau pathology, closed structure, charter for human rights, doctrine of minimum force, and police accountability. Some of the important criticisms were drawn from the different facets and compared to the existing situation in the South African Police Service. The author used focus groups from the crime prevention, detective and support services, and carried out purposive interviews while he was Area Commissioner at Area Marico in Rustenburg (South African Police Service). A literature review into the research of many modern-day academics and researchers, that have carried out research on specific aspects within the external and internal environments of the South African Police Service, was also completed. Being a former police officer with extensive policing experience, the author drew his own conclusions on the challenges facing the modern day police officer.
Problems encountered in the implementation of sector policing in priority and contact crime stations in KwaZulu-Natal : the case of Nongoma and Newcastle police stationsAuthor Muzukhona ButheleziSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 84 –98 (2010)More Less
Since the change of government from an undemocratic to a democratic dispensation, government departments had to change the manner in which they conduct their business. The South African Police Service (SAPS) was not any different from other departments. Since then, they have introduced various policing strategies to try to combat crime and changing the manner in which they conduct their business. This article deals with one policing strategy that was introduced by SAPS to combat crime and support the concept of community policing that was adopted as a policing ideology in a democratic South Africa. It probes problems encountered in the implementation of sector policing at two police stations (Nongoma and Newcastle police stations) in KwaZulu-Natal. Common challenges encountered by both police stations; differences in the manner in which each police station implemented sector policing, and recommendations on how to ensure the success of this policing strategy will be discussed.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 99 –113 (2010)More Less
Domestic violence remains a problem for many families in South Africa. The coming into effect of the Domestic Violence Act, 116 of 1998 as well as the introduction of the Domestic Violence National Instruction, 7 of 1999 by the South African Police Service in order to regulate and guide the conduct of its members both shifted mental paradigms in the policing of this crime phenomenon. However there continues to be concern about many aspects when a specific police station is examined against the letter of the national legislation and the aforesaid National Instruction. This article broadly examines the effectiveness of their implementation and the level of awareness amongst police officials in translating domestic violence policy into practice, the quality of their practical interventions when they respond to cases, the organizational approaches to capacity building, the prevention and the investigation of domestic violence. Relying on a sample of forty seven personnel at Rietgat police station, the research was an in-depth quantitative and qualitative analysis of attitudes and processes in policing domestic violence. To ensure the richness of the data, a review of the literature is conducted throughout the article, with four unstructured interviews and an analysis of four domestic violence dockets. One of the overarching findings of the research is that the station does not prioritise domestic violence so that the police could provide service of higher quality to the victims of domestic violence. A number of concrete recommendations are made in the article.
Exploring incest in preferential marriage among the Northern Sotho- and Swazi-speaking people in South AfricaAuthor Velani Zachariah MtshaliSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 114 –127 (2010)More Less
One of the manifestations or forms of sexual abuse of children is that of incest. This is commonly defined as sexual contact that occurs between close family members. Despite the growing recognition in the media and some research on the prevalence of incest in South Africa there is a decided lack of scientific research on incest in this country. The occurrence of this phenomenon challenges traditional views which see the family as a safe haven for children. A further complication to the understanding of incest in South Africa is the issue of so-called 'close-cousin marriage' and what constitutes the 'close family' unit. This is a controversial topic both internationally and in South Africa. But the Constitution of South Africa, although it states that all cultural conduct must be consistent with the principles of human dignity and equality, says nothing about preferential marriages as practised by the various cultural groups in South Africa such as the North-Sotho and Swazi-speaking people. This shortcoming in the Constitution may lead to children living among such groups being vulnerable to incest, often with the consequence of the resulting incest not being reported to the authorities, particularly the police. The focus of this article is an exploratory examination of whether preferential marriage can be equated with incest.
Foreign fears? An exploratory study of perceptions and fear of crime amongst international students at the University of Cape Town, South AfricaAuthor Tariro MutongwizoSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 128 –153 (2010)More Less
This study is an exploration of the perceptions and fear of crime of a sample of international students at the University of Cape Town. By means of a questionnaire, the study revealed that all the participants considered South Africa to be a high crime society, although very few had actually experienced crime. The generators of fear were mainly from the media and others' victimisation experiences. This confirms arguments, that indirect victimisation plays a major role in increasing fear levels. It was also found that participants believed that the causes of crime mainly revolved around poverty and lack of education among the South African population. Results of this study brought insight into fear of crime generators and levels from a distinctive part of the South African society. It also shed light on other facets of the subject. Based on these findings, recommendations were made, which include the suggestion that further research into fear of crime in different communities should be made, so as to improve the understanding of particular group fears and concerns.
How effectively is the Private Security Industry Regulatory Authority (PSIRA) regulating the security industry in South Africa?Author John KoleSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 154 –168 (2010)More Less
Over the last two decades the South African private security industry has continued to grow at an exceptional rate. So much so that security officers outnumber the public (state) police. Private security companies are also playing an increasingly important role in crime prevention and private policing activities in communities country wide. The Private Security Industry Regulatory Authority (PSIRA), as the legislated regulatory agency, is expected to regulate all security service providers. Many security service providers know that such a body as 'PSIRA' exists. They have, however, never seen any of its representatives at their workplaces, let alone them carrying out their duties of checking if companies are complying with the regulations as outlined in the PSIRA Act, No.56 of 2001 (hereafter referred to as the Act). According to this Act the following are some of the duties and responsibilities of PSIRA regarding regulating and monitoring of the private security industry: Keeping a database of all security service providers; ensuring that all security service providers comply with the provisions of the Act; determining wages for security officials; issuing of certification; ensuring that a code of conduct is adhered to; penalising service providers not adhering to the Act. This article examines the lack of implementation and enforcement of the legislated oversight requirements prescribed for PSIRA. A small study, comprising of 13 (open-ended) questions, was conducted on the views of respondents on the effectiveness of PSIRA. The questionnaire survey was administered in June 2009 to students attending the Annual BTech Security Risk Management Autumn School as part of their course requirements. The students were randomly selected to participate in the study and were given questionnaires to complete. Thirty-five students participated in the study. These students came from all over South Africa. The study excluded all students not residing in South Africa, as the study was specifically about the South African regulatory agency, namely PSIRA. The study was aimed at two different categories of practitioners, namely: in-house security and contract security.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 169 –188 (2010)More Less
The bombing of automated teller machines (ATMs) in South Africa has over the years become a major concern for both the banking industry and law enforcement agencies. The primary motive of such bombings is to gain access to the cash stored in the machines. The method used to gain access to the cash, consists of a dangerous combination of substantially organised, heavily armed gangs and commercial explosives. Large sums of money are lost by the banking industry annually. These direct losses exclude the costs to repair or replace the damaged ATMs. In addition, ATM bombings have put the lives of innocent people, perpetrators and both public and private law enforcement personnel at risk. Lives have been lost, many people injured and hundreds of ATMs have been damaged and / or destroyed by these bombings. Bank clients, particularly those in previously disadvantaged areas, have been significantly inconvenienced by the bombings of ATMs closest to them. This article explores the nature and extent of ATM bombings in South Africa. In particular, it focuses on the current state of security measures at ATMs and the modus operandi of ATM bombing syndicates. This was done with the aim of making recommendations to improve ATM security measures, so as to deter future attacks of this kind.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2010, pp 189 –210 (2010)More Less
One of the legacies of the pre-1994 apartheid style repressive and authoritarian policing was the lack of trust by black citizens of the South African Police (SAP). The poor public image of the police and lack of credibility in terms of policing and crime reduction obviously required a drastic change, not only in the mindset of police members themselves, but also in the way the new South African Police Service (SAPS) policed communities in the newly-democratic South Africa. This had to occur within the new democratic-oriented and rights dispensation as outlined initially in the Interim Constitution of 1993 and the final Constitution (1996). This changeover was premised and underpinned on the acceptance of the policing approach or strategy of 'Community Policing', which in turn was strongly based on community policing models emanating largely from best practices culled from the USA. In South Africa, community policing was implemented with a number of support 'legs', namely victim empowerment and restorative justice, inclusive of so-called democratic or human-rights oriented policing. Furthermore, community support structures as mandated by the Constitution such as Community Police Forums were also crucial to the envisaged roll out of community policing. Other policing approaches in South Africa that aimed to encompass community policing were the operational approaches termed 'visible' and 'sector' policing which in turn were premised on an intelligence-led policing approach. However, all these policing changes had to be operationalised within a context of continuing high levels of crime, in particular of violent crime. This article looks at the policy development and operational implementation by the new South African Police Services of a broad-based multi-pronged form of community policing and social crime prevention in a transitional democratic state in the period 1994-2009. It also postulates the relative failure of 'community policing' per se in the context of the continuing high levels of crime particularly violent crime with the return to a more structured operations based formal policing approach in the last three years. It also briefly examines some of the initiatives and 'community policing-oriented' post-ANC Polokwane Conference of December 2007 particularly the so-called Community Safety Initiatives, coupled to the national roll-out of Sector Policing in preparation for the Soccer World Cup to be held in South Africa in 2010.