- A-Z Publications
- Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology
- Previous Issues
- Volume 2012, Issue sed-1, 2012
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Special Edition 1, January 2012
Volumes & issues
Special Edition 1, January 2012
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 1 –15 (2012)More Less
Based on an address first delivered at the CRIMSA Biennial Conference : Criminal Justice and Criminology : A futuristic perspective on crime - trends & new crimes, this article reflects on the intersections of criminal justice and health and the potential that research, which takes place at this nexus, extends the boundaries of criminology, as it is traditionally conceptualised. To this end, the article reflects on the roots of South African Criminology, the tensions that have existed within it and curious divisions that emerged between 'respectable' (critical criminology) and 'the rest' (feminist, positivist, policy-based and administrative criminology), to name but a few. Using the authors' experiences of 'doing criminology' within a health sciences faculty, the article argues that engaging outside of existing schools of criminology, allows interdisciplinary research and practice that is unconstrained by the inward focus that represented South African criminology for much of the late 1990s and early 2000s. As illustration of this point, the article summarises areas of research where non-criminologists have engaged with issues of crime and violence, profoundly influencing criminological paradigms, through violence-related injury and mortality research, as well as studies on the nature and impact of violence on the health sector. The article concludes with the numerous possibilities of research at the intersection of health and criminology that remain to be mined, and that this unexplored terrain offers ample opportunity for further interdisciplinary research and collaboration.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 16 –25 (2012)More Less
The notion that Academic Criminology is to a large extent divorced from the practical fields that the subject informs, is not a new concept. Moreover, Criminology graduates seem to be falling into the trap of becoming bogged down in a cycle of reproducing book knowledge, without being able to interpret and use information in practice. This may lead to students entering the competitive labour market without the innovative and creative skills required to meet the challenges in the workplace. For the Department of Criminology at the University of the Free State (UFS), Community Service Learning (CSL) provides the ideal vehicle to reconcile theory on juvenile delinquency with the practical application thereof. Students in their fourth year of study visit the Bloemfontein Secure Care Centre, one of two juvenile detention centres in the Free State Province. Students engage in weekly visits to the Centre in order to present an adapted version of the 'Take a Lead in Life' Programme (a therapeutic programme designed to address problem areas that incarcerated youths encounter) to youths who have had brushes with the law. This on-site practical engagement enables the students to adapt the programme in response to the specific needs of the group they encounter. A process of experiential learning offers students the opportunity to attain a deeper level of learning regarding the phenomenon of juvenile misbehaviour and juvenile crime, whilst also emphasising the rehabilitation and therapeutic aims of the Centre. The integration of juvenile delinquency theory in the service activity, the design of the programme, the difficulties encountered during the pilot phase of the project, as well as the value of practical work for the parties involved (the University, the Department of Criminology, the students, the facilitators, the service partners and the target population) will be discussed. Personal critical reflections on the process by facilitators of the programme will also be included in this article.
The crime-related views of first-year criminology students attending two parallel-medium South African universitiesSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 26 –37 (2012)More Less
In addition to the provision of tertiary education, Institutions of Higher Education are expected to instil critical and independent thinking skills in students. Students often bring into the learning environment their own subjective views about the world they live in. We conducted a self-administered survey among 867 first-year students registered for Criminology at two parallel-medium universities (University of the Free State and the University of Pretoria). The aim of the study was to determine their views and perceptions about the crime phenomenon in South Africa. The survey was undertaken at the beginning of the academic year in order to minimise the possible influence of academic modules on their views and perceptions. Tests of significance (chi-square and effect size) revealed some differences in respect of the gender of students. However, significant differences mostly featured across population groups, in particular between African and White students' views about personal safety and vulnerability to crime, the causes of crime, sentencing, law enforcement and imprisonment. In terms of the careers that students wish to pursue, differences in views appear to be influenced by their backgrounds instead of the professions they aim to fill. The findings call on Criminology lecturers to incorporate materials in their curricula that will challenge the misconceptions students may hold about crime in South Africa. In addition, platforms are needed where students can confront their own assumptions and existing beliefs about crime, ultimately to strengthen social cognition in this domain. Such activities could prove difficult in parallel-medium institutions where the languages of tuition create two discernible student profiles. Follow-up research is needed to gauge the impact of tertiary education on the crime-related views and perceptions of students.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 38 –45 (2012)More Less
One of the least understood topics in criminology and criminal justice is rural crime and its effects on young people. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the unique crime and violence issues of rural areas, with a number of studies reporting relatively high levels of violent behaviour and victimisation among rural youth. This qualitative study explores the nature and effects of violence on school-going adolescents in the Swayimana rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Study findings suggest that learners face a high risk of exposure to violence; that such exposure is associated with debilitating psychological effects and that 80% of incidents are not reported to the authorities. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and for future research.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 46 –55 (2012)More Less
When it comes to maximising the safety and security of today's tertiary institutions, there are undoubtedly tremendous challenges. This is particularly so in terms of incorporating new technology, specifically surveillance systems, in the securing of large-scale and diverse campus environments, with multiple buildings often spread out over the campus terrain. The main challenge then for campus security managers is to change the mindset of campus guards in order for the latter to take into account the new challenges and risks to student and staff alike in keeping them optimally safe. This article looks at the concept 'Campus Safety and Security' and how campus security staff are facing up to the various challenges in changing and professionalising their approach, training and use of up-to-date new technological systems as aids in the provision of all-encompassing 24/7 safety and security on campus.
An explorative study on the impact of prenatal methamphetamine (tik) abuse on early child and school behaviourAuthor Benjamin White HaefeleSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 56 –69 (2012)More Less
This study sought to understand the impact of maternal methamphetamine abuse on early child and school going behaviour. The aim of the research is to determine the social environment of the substance addicted mothers, the type of substance they used during pregnancy, the pregnancy itself and potential complications, the birth and the attitude of the mothers towards the damaging impact of their addiction on the foetus. Questionnaires and interviews were administered to mothers who used methamphetamine during pregnancy and teachers who work with methamphetamine exposed children. This was done to determine the impact of maternal methamphetamine use on children's cognitive development and functioning at school. The research found that most of the mothers used methamphetamine during pregnancy and that they are aware of the dangers associated with pregnancy and substance abuse. Some of the personality and cognitive abilities include hyperactivity, an inclination to temper tantrums, poor reasoning skills, limited motivation and delayed physical, academic and social development. The research findings correlates with the Social Disorganisation Theory, which singles out unstable family backgrounds with the prevalence of unemployment, substance abuse, crime (theft to feed the habit), single parents and poverty amongst methamphetamine addicted mothers. Finally, the study advocates physical and academic interventions for teachers in the class situation to deal with methamphetamine exposed children, as well as the need for further prenatal substance abuse research.
Author Jacob T. MofokengSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 70 –84 (2012)More Less
A review of the literature reveals that not much research has been done on police supervision and mentorship skills, especially within crime investigation departments. Most research literature is limited to leadership on general law enforcement agencies, addressing broad concepts relating to strategic implementation, policy analysis and policing practices. This study aimed to fill a gap in research by examining the challenges on supervision and mentorship within the South African Police Detective Service as reported by investigating officers across rank structure from nine provinces in South Africa. The significance of this study is its unique attempt to identify the influence of supervisor skills on job performance levels of investigating officers. This study was directed towards describing (i) the relationship between supervisor skills and detective overall job satisfaction and (ii) the relationship between the implementation of the formal mentorship programme and detective performance. The questionnaire survey was drafted in an attempt to discover whether supervision behaviour, as well as the mentorship programme are thought to be effective or ineffective by the respondents and what effect these had on respondents in terms of subordinate performance within Detective Service. This non-experimental, quantitative study used law enforcement leadership and/or supervision and mentorship theories to establish research questions. A comprehensive literature review developed considerations for training for detective supervisors, as well as the impact of an effective mentorship programme within the Detective Service. The respondents for this study included investigating officers and first-line supervisors or detective commanders from selected stations across South Africa. Using the five-point Likert Scale survey, the study findings indicated that inadequate levels of training given to general detectives at station level and the poor supervision of and feedback to inexperienced or junior general detectives were major challenges confronting detectives at station level.
Security measures as contributing factors to loss control and crime prevention at petrol stations : a case study from GautengSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 85 –102 (2012)More Less
The study examined security measures as contributing factors to crime reduction at petrol stations in Gauteng. The sample population of the study was petrol stations (Sasol, Total, BP and Engen brands) in Gauteng. BP only allowed employers/operators of petrol stations to participate in the study. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Questionnaires for employers (18 participants) and for employees (41 participants) were distributed to selected petrol station sites. Interviews were conducted with selected petrol station employers. Recommendations were made based on the findings of the study. The main findings were:
- 43% of employees and 39% of employers agreed that their petrol stations were safe places at which to work
- Vulnerable items at petrol stations were identified by the participants
- 77% of employees and 77% of employers agreed that when the petrol station management is part of Community Policing Forum, crime at petrol stations could be reduced
- 72% of employers and 69% of employees agreed that participation in local projects by petrol station management as part of their social responsibility (community upliftment) helps reduce crime at petrol stations
- The profile of the perpetrators of crime at petrol stations was uncovered
- The financial loss suffered by petrol stations as a result of internal and external people
- Security measures in place at petrol stations
Private security companies, neighbourhood watches and the use of CCTV surveillance in residential neighbourhoods : the case of Pretoria-EastAuthor Anthony MinnaarSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 103 –116 (2012)More Less
Closed circuit television (CCTV) camera surveillance systems in central business districts (CBDs) in South Africa have been in use for at least a decade. Their primary implementation motivation was for the purpose of crime prevention, deterrence and control. However, their extension to residential neighbourhoods within the context of social crime prevention and community policing have been a more recent phenomena. Many of these systems have been privately funded and operated by contract security companies, or even initiated by individual security companies themselves as an add-on to existing contracts to clients for security services. The impetus for these surveillance systems must also be seen within the slow implementation of Sector Policing (as an extension of Community Policing) and the individual neighbourhood or Community Police Forums (CPFs) Community Safety Networks programmes. This article is exploratory in nature and examines the background and motivations for their implementation as part of integrated neighbourhood and residential security and safety measures and investigates the roles of various role-players, in particular Block Committees/Neighbourhood Watches and private security companies - in their implementation and operationalisation. It also reviews whether such systems add to neighbourhood safety or are just a 'nice-to-have' add-on. It is based on a case study from selected CPF Sectors in Pretoria's Eastern suburbs.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 117 –137 (2012)More Less
The Directorate of Special Operations (DSO), nicknamed the 'Scorpions', was launched in September 1999 in Gugulethu Township near Cape Town, South Africa. After initial start-up problems, the National Assembly amended the National Prosecuting Authority Act 32 of 1998, in order to establish the Directorate of Special Operations as an investigating directorate of the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA). This was done in terms of the National Prosecuting Authority Amendment Act 61 of 2000. However, as the Scorpions gained public favour, they also exceeded their area of jurisdiction by performing functions which fell outside of their mandate, such as intelligence gathering. These 'outside of their mandate' (unlawful) activities led to the so-called 'Browse Mole Report' - an intelligence-driven report which implicated some politicians within the ruling party with an attempt to overthrow the government. As a result of this, the National Assembly instituted an investigation into the authenticity of the report, which proved to be false and unsanctioned activity. This happened whilst the unit was busy investigating corruption charges against the president of the African National Congress, Jacob Zuma, who later became the president of the country. Two weeks before South Africa's general elections of 2009, the corruption charges against Zuma were withdrawn by the NPA, citing among others, interference in the administration of justice by senior investigators of the unit. In the 'Hugh Glenister v President of the Republic of South Africa & Others' [CCT 48/10] court case, the key question asked by the complainant (Glenister) was whether the national legislation that created the Directorate For Priority Crime Investigation (DPCI), known as the Hawks, and disbanded the Scorpions (DSO), was constitutionally valid. This article seeks to unravel the reasons that led to the dissolution and subsequent amalgamation of the unit into the South African Police Service, as well as proposed solutions.