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- Volume 2012, Issue sed-2, 2012
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Special Edition 2, January 2012
Volumes & issues
Special Edition 2, January 2012
Reflections on the strategic leadership in the South African Police Service on violent crimes and policingAuthor Doraval GovenderSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 1 –16 (2012)More Less
After the democratic dispensation in 1994, the South African Police Force (SAPF) underwent a change in leadership, with the appointment of its first National Commissioner, George Fivaz, in 1995. This was the era of democratic policing, community policing, National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) and policy development. Fivaz was faced with the challenge of rationalising, reorganising and amalgamating eleven (11) police agencies into a single police service namely, "South African Police Service" (SAPS). At the end of 1999, after his five-year term in office his contract was not renewed. In January 2000, the successor to Fivaz, Jackie Selebi, was appointed as the National Commissioner of the SAPS. Selebi was the first black National Commissioner of the SAPS. This was the era of policy implementation, National Crime Combating Strategy (NCCS) and sector policing. The State President suspended Selebi in 2007 because of his alleged involvement in corruption. In 2009, Bheki Cele was appointed as the third National Commissioner (after 1994) of the SAPS. Cele initiated a change in the new democratic policing culture by bringing back a touch of militarisation (of rank structure, i.e. he changed the rank structure from Commissioner to General and so on all the way down. His critics are of the view that his utterance of "a bullet for a bullet" seem to have led to an increase in incidents of police brutality and use of force. Since 1995, different crime combating strategies have been implemented to address the public perception and experiences of violent crime and policing in general. The aim of this article is to examine the different leadership styles displayed by the different National Commissioners during their terms of office and whether their leadership styles impacted on violent crime and policing in general.
Long-term crime prevention and the criminal justice systems of Nigeria and South Africa : a hopeless hope?Author Adewale A. OlutolaSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 17 –30 (2012)More Less
This exploratory study examines the aptness of long-term crime prevention in Nigeria and South Africa. The author takes a qualitative research approach. Ten crime prevention practitioners (Police Officials, Magistrates in Criminal Courts Divisions, National Prosecuting Officials, Prisons/Correctional Officials and Directors of Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) involved in crime prevention projects) in each of the two countries (Nigeria and South Africa) were interviewed. The study reveals that as they are currently constituted, the criminal justice systems of the two countries studied cannot effect long-term crime prevention. Among other reasons, this is primarily because the root causes of crime in the two countries lie beyond the control and the mandate of the two criminal justice systems. This article concludes that it is hopeless to expect the criminal justice systems of Nigeria and South Africa to prevent crime in the long term unless the root causes of crime in these two countries are rigorously addressed.
Contesting police governance : respect, authority and belonging in organised violent gangs in Cape TownAuthor Irvin KinnesSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 31 –46 (2012)More Less
Gangs establish their own governance arrangements and in so doing, contest the governance processes of the police. Gangs also govern themselves and the communities in which they live and contest police governance through their own governance practices. This research describes the types of governance practiced by armed and violent gangs, the impact on the manner in which they are policed and how this impacts on and regulates the police. This article also examines the gang problem through a nodal governance lens.
Author Herma FosterSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 47 –66 (2012)More Less
In 2008 South Africa experienced a series of attacks on foreigners which lead to the concept xenophobia becoming a household word. Since then, sporadic reports on xenophobic incidents from various regions of the country have been reported in the media. The question came about on how university students perceive xenophobia and led to a survey administered to compare the attitude towards and opinions on xenophobia of different groups of students. Three groups of students (law students, criminology students and foreign students) completed a questionnaire on issues ranging from the definition of xenophobia, reasons for xenophobia, perceived perpetrators of xenophobia, the consequences of xenophobic attacks for the victim and how to prevent xenophobia. The 207 respondents represented third year Criminology students who discussed the issue in their first year Criminology module, a group of mostly second year law students who were only enrolled for one module in Criminology, and a small group of foreign students, mostly from the SADEC countries, studying at the University. The attitudes and opinions of these groups were compared to determine if their academic background influenced their outlook. A few statistically significant differences were found regarding the reasons given for the xenophobic attacks, who the different groups perceive as the perpetrators of the attacks and the most devastating consequences of the xenophobic violence for the victims. For example, 69% of foreign students said that xenophobic attacks stem from the fact that foreigners are more willing to work and the South Africans are lazy. Only 37.8% of criminology students and 35% of the law students agreed with this opinion. More foreign students (69%) believe that the perpetrators of the violence are young people compared to the 44,1% of criminology students and the 35% of law students. All the groups were of the opinion that the physical and financial consequences were severe. The students also recommended various measures that could be implemented to reduce xenophobia.
Author Natasha LutchminarainSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 67 –75 (2012)More Less
The recent past has seen a drastic increase in the level of violence used in robberies at shopping centres across South Africa as seen in the numbers of media reports. These robbers have become more brazen and direct in their perpetration of crimes at shopping centres. Criminal incidents that occur at shopping centres are not only limited to the actual shopping area but it also includes criminal incidents that occur in the designated parking areas of a shopping centre. The increased number of crimes that have occurred in the last few years at shopping centres has not only raised a huge safety concern for shopping centre owners, shopping centre management, business owners (individual retail outlets) and the private security companies contracted at shopping centres, it can also affect the numbers of consumers frequenting specific shopping centres that appear to be harder hit by robberies than others. This article delves into the nature and extent of shopping centre robberies in Gauteng. It looks into the modus operandi of shopping centre attackers as well as it reflects on the current state of security measures at shopping centres in Gauteng. This is done with the aim of making recommendations to improve security at shopping centres so as to deter future attacks of the kind.
Challenges of diversion strategies in meeting the diversion objectives of the Child Justice Act (75 of 2008)Author Francois SteynSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 76 –86 (2012)More Less
One purpose of the Child Justice Act (75 of 2008) is to divert children who were found guilty of criminal behaviour, in appropriate cases, away from formal justice procedures. The objectives of diversion revolve around instilling responsibility, reintegrating the child with the family and community, involving victims in the diversion process, as well as preventing stigmatisation and the child from receiving a criminal record. An explorative study was undertaken to determine the extent to which different diversion strategies have the potential to realise the diversion objectives of the Child Justice Act. Case studies of four diversion strategies were compiled, namely life skills training, mentoring, outdoor programming and family group conferencing. It is argued that the objectives of dealing with the child outside the ambit of formal criminal procedures, encouraging accountability and preventing the child from receiving a criminal record can easily be met, provided that diverted children complete the assigned interventions. However, diversion strategies are confronted with an array of challenges, from both programme design and implementation perspectives, in meeting the objectives of diversion. Among others, group approaches may fail to address the unique needs of individual participants. Despite parents featuring as important stakeholders in diversion outcomes, some strategies do not recognise or formalise their involvement in service delivery. Community involvement appears absent across diversion strategies. Given the general absence of victim involvement in diversion strategies (except for restorative-type interventions), important questions can be raised regarding their ability to meet the reconciliatory and reintegration objectives of the Child Justice Act.
Offender reintegration programme and its role in reducing recidivism : exploring perceptions of the effectiveness of Tough Enough ProgrammeSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 87 –102 (2012)More Less
With a high recidivism rate of up to 94%, (Draft White Paper on Corrections in South Africa, 2003:71), it could be reasonably contended that a small percentage of the general population commits a high percentage of crimes. Considering the daily cost of approximately R39 million to accommodate incarcerated offenders, effective strategies to stop 'prison revolving door' need to be in place not only to curb the great cost to the community and taxpayers, but also to save hundreds of thousands of victims affected as a result of crime. The rehabilitation model suggests that problems of offenders, whether physical, psychological, or social, are the direct causes of criminal behaviour. Studies indicate that some rehabilitation and reintegration programmes may be effective under certain conditions and the recidivism rate lower for offenders who participated in such programmes. The time offenders spend in correctional facilities can therefore be used to diagnose, treat, and correct or at least mitigate these problems. In addition to their own offending behaviour that led to their imprisonment, the punitive and painful nature of the prison experience as well as exposure to anti-social attitudes and pro-criminal beliefs exacerbate habits of thinking and acting that can be dysfunctional once offenders are released back into their communities. This article focuses on the role that offender rehabilitation programmes play in reducing recidivism and explore perceptions of offenders, ex-offenders and rehabilitation providers with regard to the effectiveness of the Tough Enough Programme (TEP) offered by the National Institute for Crime Prevention and Reintegration of Offenders (NICRO). After informed consent was attained, this study was based on a qualitative approach which utilised purposive, non-random sample techniques. A sample of eighteen participants was selected which included: four NICRO's social workers involved in TEP; eight incarcerated participants from Medium C at Westville Prison and six probationers who were attending correctional programmes at the Department of Correctional Services (DCS) satellite office in Durban.
Prosecuting money laundering the FATF way : an analysis of gaps and challenges in South African legislation from a comparative perspectiveAuthor David TubaSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 103 –122 (2012)More Less
South Africa is a member of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), an intergovernmental body which is responsible for setting international standards to combat 'money laundering' and countering the financing of terrorism. In addition, the FATF has developed structures and mechanisms to ensure that these money laundering standards are effectively complied with by its members and non-member countries. Compliance is enforced by conducting evaluations of domestic legal systems and assessing the extent to which these systems are effectively implemented. A country is required to comply with these standards both in criminalising money laundering as well as applying proactive measures to prevent money from been laundered into the financial systems and to punish those who have benefited from such laundering. In 2009, the FATF has conducted a third round of evaluation in South Africa and identified specific gaps that require attention. Against this background, this article aims to analyse gaps identified by the FATF and certain challenges that prosecutors face in their prosecutions of money laundering. This is done in comparison with similar systems in the United States of America and Canada. Systems in these particular countries are relevant for this article because both countries were rated highly by the FATF with regards to their prosecution of money laundering offences. With its fourth round of evaluations around the corner, the question is whether South Africa has improved in its prosecution of money laundering and whether those gaps and challenges in question have been addressed as required by the FATF. This article is not intended to statistically evaluate any improvement in the number of money laundering cases that were brought before the court since the FATF's last evaluation. The aim of this article is to analyse these gaps and recommend few initiatives on how they can be addressed and be overcome.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 123 –135 (2012)More Less
In South African education circles there are a number of reasons for concern as a result of the escalating violence in schools countrywide. Such violence creates a climate of insecurity and fear, which impairs and impacts on the core educational purpose of schools. Accordingly, the main purpose of installing and implementing security measures at schools is to create a safer environment where individuals can move freely and feel secure in going about their daily schooling activities. Currently school safety and security is one of the most basic problems facing South African schools. Therefore creating and maintaining schools that are safe, is a priority that should be on the agenda of every provincial education department and individual school boards. Over the years the needs of school security have changed, from an emphasis on protecting school property (vandalism, fire or theft) to the safety of the scholars and the educators. These days, implementing security at schools, requires well-developed security and safety plans as well as undertaking proper risk assessment and threat analysis exercises. This article discusses the results obtained from research that investigated the extent and effectiveness of security measures in secondary schools in South Africa (case studies at secondary schools in Tshwane Metropolitan Region of Gauteng Province).
Author Cornelis RoelofseSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2012, pp 136 –154 (2012)More Less
This article is based on the original conceptualisation of Reciprocal Moral Dualism that appeared in Internal Security (2011). The author has since expanded the original theory and these additions are contained in this article. The theory was developed from initial observations after two visits to Eastern Europe (Poland, Serbia and Macedonia) in 2009 and 2010. South Africa, as well as the former East Bloc countries, had an oppressive policing system, which comparatively speaking, changed to a community policing approach in the aftermath of their respective democratic political changes in the mid-1990s. As in Eastern Europe after democratisation, there has been an increase in crime, as well as a change in policing philosophy moving from an oppressive system to community policing. The initial government reaction to the high crime rates in South Africa was to deny that the problem was getting out of hand. While the crime debate was going on, there was also a political battle within the ruling African National Congress. After the African National Congress (ANC) Conference in 2007 held in Polokwane and the change in State presidents (Mbeki to Zuma) also brought tougher government rhetoric against crime from the Zuma camp. Public statements were made by politicians wherein criminals were referred to as "bastards" and "shoot the bastards". This article argues that police officers may misinterpret these statements and end up in abusing human rights. The article also argues for a new theoretical theory called "Reciprocal Moral Dualism", which suggests that society should prepare police officers for internalised (self-control) control and to develop a respect for human rights. What society provides in moral fibre, must be evidenced by good police officer behaviour and the police must not "desocialise" and "resocialise" the new recruits with conflicting morality and negative values. The paradox is obvious. If poorly socialised individuals join the police, the chances are that they will spread their inappropriate behaviour and corrupt others.