- A-Z Publications
- Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology
- Previous Issues
- Volume 2014, Issue sed-2, 2014
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Special Edition 2, January 2014
Volumes & issues
Special Edition 2, January 2014
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 1 –13 (2014)More Less
In keeping with its mandate as a comprehensive, open and distance learning tertiary institution offering a variety of academic and career-focused programmes, UNISA dedicated to distance education, undertook to develop a signature module for each of its six colleges. The College of Law developed a fully on-line module entitled The Social Dimensions of Justice using the Sakai platform as a means of delivery. This article looks at how the module represents innovation in teaching and learning because besides being a new advance in online learning in South Africa, it also offers an interdisciplinary module to students. In order to design this new module it required inter-disciplinarity to transcend the traditional departmental and modular boundaries. This module introduces Criminal Justice and Law students to the South African context in which they will have to perform as future legal and criminal justice functionaries. The module allows for the development of a basic understanding of what shapes our legal system, the nature of South African law and the criminal justice system and how law and justice is applied and administered. Students are sensitised to how they, as legal and criminal justice functionaries, can contribute towards building a safer and more just society in conformity with the South African Constitution. Law and justice is an intrinsic part of our lives. The signature model contains a new and unique curriculum, capturing the essence of both the School of Law and the School of Criminal Justice, to a final product that blends two very diverse disciplines. The pedagogy is based upon methods that break down the space-time barriers to 'learning', and aspects separating 'learner and teacher' by means of the use of technical devices and online technologies.
Author Irvin KinnesSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 14 –26 (2014)More Less
This article presents a view on the recent gang violence that has held the people of the Cape Flats captive for a number of years. It examines the key imperatives of gang violence on the Cape Flats and the attempts by policing agencies to police gang violence. In particular, the article examines the new approach of organised armed violence employed by organised, armed violent gangs when dealing with rivals, community members and the police. The incessant calls from politicians for the military to be employed in the fight against gangs are also investigated. However, it is the police approach and actions that ultimately shapes the violence of the gangs through the gangs' responses to those police actions. The response of the Cape Flats gangs needs further examination.
Gatekeeping : an obstacle to criminological research with Indian youth drug users in Chatsworth, KwaZulu-NatalSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 27 –35 (2014)More Less
Every research study has a story and this article tells the story of the researchers' challenges in accessing participants for a study. Thus this article draws on the researchers' experiences with gatekeeping dilemmas while attempting to research drug addiction among a select sample of youth in a historically Indian township in KwaZulu-Natal. The article highlights the challenges in gaining access to an Indian sample of drug users. Some of the reasons depart from the premise that perhaps the most challenging factor is that most of the populations relevant to the study of drug addiction, such as under age youth, traffickers, suppliers and or drug lords, constitute so-called hidden populations. Heckathorn (1997), argues that: "a hidden population is a group of individuals, whose membership in hidden populations often involves stigmatized or illegal behaviour, leading individuals to refuse to co-operate, or give unreliable answers to protect their privacy." Consequently for this empirical study attempting to 'research' a 'hidden population' resulted in challenges not necessarily observed with other research topics. This research argues through a theoretical framework how gatekeeping challenges may impact on 'important' research agendas. This research article further highlights principal gatekeeping challenges associated with research in the field of illicit drug use which is the focus of this research article. This is done through reflections on the researchers' methodological journey namely gaining access to a relevant sample. The article concludes with suggestions for researchers attempting research with 'hidden populations' in future criminological research. This article explores some of the issues that researchers should consider when carrying out research with 'gypsy-travellers'.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 36 –49 (2014)More Less
Economic crime is a global concern and the emergence of female economic offenders is a general phenomenon. Yet, scant South African research exists on this gender and category of offenders. Causes, contributory factors, motives and high-risk situations attached to offending behaviour are different for male and female offenders. Nonetheless, most Criminal Justice efforts with regard to policies, the development of programmes and assessment structures focus on male offending behaviour and are adjusted to fit the female offending population. There is hardly any consideration for female offenders' special needs, backgrounds, specific circumstances, unique lived experiences, aetiology and precursors to crime when efforts are made to address female offenders' offending behaviour. This article presents work in progress of the second author's postgraduate study in Criminology on economic female offenders. A literature overview guides the case study analysis which is representative of a criminological assessment and explanation of a female economic offender.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 50 –63 (2014)More Less
The purpose of this article is to describe what contribute to deaths in police cells and identify guidelines for its prevention. The researcher collected data from the dockets relating to deaths in police cells in Gauteng and Limpopo for the period 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2010. The data were collected with a docket analysis schedule and categorised into themes. The study was designed in terms of the pragmatic philosophical worldview and is descriptive in nature. Four causes of deaths in police cells were identified, namely, suicide, natural causes, assault by fellow detainees and injuries which were sustained prior to detention. Suicide is the leading cause of deaths, followed by natural causes, assault by fellow detainees and injuries sustained prior to detention. The most common ligatures which were used to commit suicide are shoe-laces, belts and strips torn from clothing and bedding items. The preferred ligature points are the burglar proofs on cell windows. Booted feet and hands were the most common instruments used to inflict fatal injuries on the detainees. It was also found that police officials are generally not complying fully with the standing orders which regulate the management of people who are detained in police cells. The failure of police officials to comply fully with the standing orders on custody in police cells contributed to the deaths of detainees in police cells. Guidelines are provided to prevent the deaths of detainees in police cells. Deaths in police cells are highly preventable, as they occur in a highly regulated and controlled setting. Strict adherence to the regulations pertaining to detaining suspects need to be followed, the removal of ligature points in the cells and the replacement of blankets which can be torn, will contribute to the prevention of deaths in police cells.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 64 –80 (2014)More Less
Most institutions of higher learning across South Africa are engaged in developing policies, programmes, and systems to reduce risks and maintain safety and security on their campuses. Although these strategies amount to millions of rands, inadequate empirical research has been conducted to assess the influence of these strategies on the level of violence or students fear. An attempt was made in this article to test ideas voiced by researchers regarding the prevalence and fear of crime despite huge investments made to maintain and improve campus security within institutions of higher learning. Thus, this study seeks to evaluate the frequency and effects of violent incidents to which the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) students are subjected at the Pretoria West Campus. Questionnaires were used to collect data. A group of 60 students were chosen out of a hat from a population of 2170 students. The findings indicated that measures set in place such patrol security officers as well as closed circuit televisions, it was alarming to note that many of the students were uncertain about their safety in their residences. Institutions of higher learning all over the world experience violent incidents and the Pretoria West Campus of TUT was no exception. Based on the findings, this is a concern as students who do not feel safe cannot study effectively. When young students are subjected to abuse or violent incidents, their ability to concentrate is affected detrimentally and they could become paranoid. The findings also revealed that substance abuse were prevalent as alcohol and drugs were taken into the residences without being detected by the security officers on duty. Recommendations were also made and conclusion drawn based on the findings that were discussed.
The ruling political parties and the war against crime and corruption in Nigeria and South Africa : the case of two brothers with headless bodiesAuthor Adewale OlutolaSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 81 –95 (2014)More Less
This article argues that the crime of corruption is fundamentally the 'taking over' and/or misappropriation of property(ies) (movable and immovable) that essentially belong to the masses, without the consent of the latter. The criminality in the commission of crime (offence) is the act or omission prohibited and punishable by the state. It then inescapably means that the Nigerian and South African ruling political parties, executives and or the law enforcers are chasing shadows in their fight against crime and corruption in both countries. Use of a document analysis research method was adopted for this article. While a document is an important source of data, the researcher has critically and with caution considered all reviewed documents. In this article an attempt is made to provide a convergence of evidence that produces research findings results. Triangulation of the collected and analysed information assisted in safeguarding against a possible accusation that the findings in this article are 'simply artefacts of a single method, a single source, or a single investigator's bias'. The article reveals that, as presently constituted, the Nigerian and the South African ruling political parties, executives and law enforcers cannot realistically combat the crime of corruption. The conclusion drawn in this article is based on the fact that a fairly large number of prominent members of both ruling political parties, their executives and appointed law enforcers in the two countries are themselves corrupt or lawbreakers.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 96 –106 (2014)More Less
A substantial number of young people are involved in crime in South Africa. This is supported by statistics from the Department of Correctional Services which indicate that 31137 young people were serving prison sentences in South African Correctional centres (Department of Correctional Services statistics 2011). While their management as juveniles and efforts to address their criminal behaviour is more effective whilst they are detained as juveniles, the problem arises when the majority will have to be transferred from juvenile facilities to adult centres when they turn twenty-one in order to continue their incarceration. This transition has a number of challenges both for these young people and the Department of Correctional Services. Young people are confronted with a number of challenges such as HIV/AIDS, gangs, sodomy and rape, in overcrowded adult correctional facilities. The Department of Correctional Services (DCS) encounters problems in assisting young people to adjust to this transition and protecting these young people from assault and abuse by older inmates. This article highlights the process and challenges faced by young people during their transfer to adult correctional facilities.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 107 –126 (2014)More Less
Corporate governance responsibility is enforced by law in countries such as South Africa and England (King, 1994: 5). Corporate governance should be taken seriously due to the fact that the accountability for corporate governance ultimately rests with the board and executive management levels. If the corporate governance system fails in an organisation/company, the organisation/company will be bound to lose its competitive edge and will not be able to ensure its survival. In South Africa all organisations and companies seeking public listings need to show corporate governance of the management of risks in their companies (Shaw: 2002: 1). The executive managers and members of the board can be taken to court if the integrity, availability or confidentiality of information is compromised in any way. It is also essential that corporate governance include information security as a vital part of governing an organisation/company and that the board and executive management should encourage effective and responsible use of information among all stakeholders in the organisation (Kritzinger, 2006: 74-75). The security risk to operations, personnel, and products of an organisation/company is determined by the presence of a known threat(s) which is difficult to predict in terms of timing or impact (Valsamakis, Vivian & Du Toit, 1996: 3). Since the inception of security risk management in the 1970s it has become popular in South Africa. It was the only security risk assessment activity which was widely used to reduce losses. The principal author made use of a mixed methods approach in order to examine and provide a discussion in this article on present-day security information management practices in organisations/companies.
'Crackers', cyberattacks and cybersecurity vulnerabilities : the difficulties in combatting the 'new' cybercriminalsAuthor Anthony MinnaarSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2014, pp 127 –144 (2014)More Less
Given modern societies' increased reliance on borderless and decentralised information technologies, cyberspace has been identified as an easy target for organised criminals, criminal hackers (crackers), 'hacktivists', governments themselves or even terrorist networks for the perpetration of a number of wide-ranging illegal activities - not all purely criminal. Gone are the days when encryption was fool proof, e-commerce was safe, gaming was just for fun, war was fought by actual people, and the Internet was safely in the hands of responsible entities. Control over the Internet has become a free-for-all, and nothing is 'hackproof' with old cybersecurity models collapsing. This article examines cybercrime basics, the anatomy of cyberattacks as launched against networks by professional hackers/crackers and then turns to looking at the enormous problems of implementing cybersecurity in an ordinary organisation, and finally the current threats and vulnerabilities of mobile devices and the growing practice of 'bring-your-own-device' (BYOD) to work.