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- Volume 2015, Issue sed-5, 2015
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Special Edition 5, January 2015
Volumes & issues
Special Edition 5, January 2015
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2015, pp 1 –18 (2015)More Less
Academic journals often represent the 'zeitgeist' (defining mood or spirit) of the current debates and new developments in a discipline. We asked the question 'Ubivuimus, quo vadimus' Acta Criminologica? 'Where have we been and where are we going' with the aim, among others, of revealing insights into trends of research topics, author productivity and methodological aspects of the journal. A content analysis was conducted of articles published in the Acta Criminologica journal between the twenty-year period of 1994 and 2013, in order to describe shifts in the origins of publications, the number and post-level of authors, research methods, units of analysis, themes and matters related to the incorporation of policy and theory in publications. Having excluded special and conference editions, a total of 629 articles were included in the analysis. The twenty-year period was divided into five four-year terms to facilitate time-trend analyses. Depending on the nature of the variables involved, statistically significant differences over the five intervals were determined by means of the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests. Significant shifts featured in terms of local versus international publications (p=0.013); the universities that contributed to the journal (p=0.006); the number and post-levels of authors per publication (p<0.001); the frequency of empirical versus literature-based articles (p<0.001); and the research approaches (p<0.001) and designs (p=0.010) of contributions. Further insights were revealed regarding the units of analysis used in published work, as well as fluctuations in the thematic content of articles. The limited use of theory in publications and minimal focus on the value of research with regard to policy and decision-making remain a cause of concern. Overall, the research demonstrated the value of critically reflecting over time on the trends in publication in the Acta Criminologica with the view of informing future directions.
Adult female rape victims' views about the Thuthuzela Care Centres : a South African multi-disciplinary service delivery modelSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2015, pp 19 –33 (2015)More Less
The article explores adult female rape victims' views about the Thuthuzela Care Centre (TCC) service delivery model as a multidisciplinary one-stop centre for victims of sexual offences and domestic violence. The research primarily followed a descriptive purpose, although some of the components were exploratory in nature. Adult female rape survivors were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire with the assistance of staff located at a specific TCC. Hence, the data were collected at four TCCs in the Gauteng province, South Africa, during 2012-2014. The research results indicated that service delivery was experienced as satisfactory and that a positive relationship existed between the victim and TCC staff. Forty-five research respondents participated in the study.
An examination of factors influencing investigating officers' retention in the South African Police ServiceAuthor Jacob MofokengSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2015, pp 34 –51 (2015)More Less
In recent years, the South African Police Service (SAPS) has experienced increasing levels of staff turnover, especially within the Detective Service environment. The problem is compounded by experienced detectives, who have been the core of the Detective Service's operations for years, and who retired, as well as those who have been recruited by the private sector. Before the Detective Service can determine which retention strategies to be initiated, it is critical to know the specific reasons why detectives are leaving the SAPS. As the SAPS seeks to find the causes for attrition, officials must have an integral role in the process. One of the most important areas to clarify in this phase is to ask detectives what is important to them and their opinion of why employees are leaving. Thus, the purpose of this article is the examination of factors influencing Investigating Officers' (IOs) retention in the South African Police Service.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2015, pp 52 –66 (2015)More Less
The concept of gangs has existed since the dawn of early Roman society (circa 753BC), where youths formed unique social groups in conflict with generally accepted societal norms. The concept 'youth gang', however, only originated in Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries with the phenomenon of vagabonds. Throughout the ages, history shows that whenever societies are undergoing large scale socio-political and economic turmoil, there is usually an upsurge in the number of displaced youth seeking alternative means of survival, especially in a surrogate group context. Despite this vulnerability, there is a dearth of research pertaining to the crime and victimisation patterns associated with gang formation within the Free State region of the Republic of South Africa. Gang-related activities in the province are rife, and gangs, such as the Dickies, Dogs of War (DOW), Triple 6 (666), Born to Kill (BTK), International Junior Portuguese (IJP) and Natural Born Killers (NBK) are running rampant. These groups tend to conform to the commonly held beliefs of street gangs found in the literature, however in certain circumstances also include elements of the occult and African witchcraft. Since little is known about this new type of gang formation, this study provides an explorative account of these groups, primarily informed by a documentary analysis of the South African Police Service.
Cybercrime investigations : cyber-processes for detecting of cybercriminal activities, cyber-intelligence and evidence gatheringSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2015, pp 67 –81 (2015)More Less
Due to modern societies' increased reliance on borderless and decentralised information technologies, cyberspace has been identified as an easy target for criminals. Encryption is no longer 'foolproof', e-commerce is unsafe, and the Internet is no longer safely in the hands of responsible entities. Control over cyberspace has become a free-for-all, and nothing is 'hackproof' with old cybersecurity models collapsing. As a result tracing cybercriminals have become an increasingly difficult task for law enforcement agencies. Owing to the rate with which crimes are perpetrated in cyberspace, as well as the complications presented by investigations of such a multi-jurisdictional character, the task of the identification, successful investigation and prosecution of cybercriminals reflects rising challenges to law enforcement agencies across all borders - both physical and in cyberspace. Conventional investigative procedures do not meet the demands of the challenges associated with the investigation of cybercrimes. Technological advancements have made it increasingly difficult to answer the investigative questions of who, what, where, when and how. As such, in the digital setting, evidence is now gathered and processed differently from traditional means. In this article it is argued that the technical aspects and procedures of investigations into cybercrime are also still developing in response to the rapid growth and changing cyberattack/hacking modus operandi of cybercriminals. This has given rise to substantial discussion on the capabilities of existing cyber investigation models, tools used for the analysis of evidence and law enforcement in their effort to tackle cybercriminals. The investigation of cybercrime involves more than minimal technology examination or recovery of digital evidence. It necessitates the explicit presence of a variety of technical and non-technical specialised controls and investigative aids. This article provides a descriptive analysis of various investigative models and techniques used in the investigation of cybercrime and their effectiveness in securing prosecutions of cybercriminals. In addition, it will look at the various challenges that are faced in the execution of investigations into cybercrimes.
Author Eveshnie ReddySource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2015, pp 82 –98 (2015)More Less
The nature of commerce in recent years has been innovative and fast-paced. Together, the internet and technology created the platform for e-commerce, resulting in new payment systems and unfortunately, increased levels of all forms of cybercrime. Consequently, new payment authentication technologies, based on biometrics, to protect the integrity of such systems have and are being developed. However, as these technologies are developed and introduced, perpetrators have proved that they will find ways to bypass the security of the new technological e-commerce processes to meet their own criminal ends. It therefore becomes imperative that before these technologies are introduced to consumers, all avenues are explored in order to identify any potential loopholes. While biometric technologies do increase consumer confidence, recent reports highlight that they also come with their own set of risks. The question then arises: can these risks be minimised, if not totally removed? Moreover, how can this be achieved? There is no simple answer to this, but one key factor should be considered: constant negotiation of these processes of authentication; re-examine existing technologies, look for loopholes and redesign. We already know that perpetrators are crafty and will find ways to bypass security levels, so instead of making innovation the focus, stronger authentication measures should in fact be the focus by subjecting all biometric systems to regular liveness testing, and ensuring a higher entropy. Biometrics has the potential to be at the forefront of security in payment authentication for e-commerce transactions for one main reason: (a) no two people can have the exact same (identical) biometric characteristics. Due to this, biometrics offers a remedy to the main challenge presented by cyberspace: who (as in identifiable person) committed the crime? Biometrics has the capability to accurately affirm the identity that cyberspace negates and thus should be designed as such to create a secure, reliable and cost efficient way for all people to transact online.
Strategic approaches to by-law enforcement as a means of crime prevention in the Tshwane metropolitan areaSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2015, pp 99 –113 (2015)More Less
This research was concerned with evaluating the development of recent strategic approaches to by-law enforcement as a means of crime prevention in the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. The study focused on the two distinct approaches towards by-law enforcement by the Metro Police in Tshwane. The initial approach was a distinctly centralised strategy and led to the establishment of the By-law Enforcement Centre (BEC) in 2008. Strategic plans at the time (2008-2011) focused on streamlining by-law enforcement, capacity building and aligning by-law enforcement within the aims of Tshwane's macro Safer City Policy (adopted in 2005). However, in 2009 a Community Safety Visibility Strategy was tabled, which at its core, promoted the principle of decentralising metro policing duties within the constituent wards of the Tshwane Metro. This included by-law enforcement. To facilitate its implementation, the Ward-based Deployment Strategy was drafted and structural changes in the Tshwane Metro Police were made to accommodate the new strategic approach. Two divisions, namely: the Proactive Policing Division (PPD) and the Strategic Policing Intervention Division (SPID) was created, with operational by-law enforcement undertaken by the various wards under the PPD and by-law investigation by the SPID. A quantitative approach was adopted in order to assess which of the two approaches are more conducive to aid crime prevention. Questionnaires were distributed amongst operational members within both divisions with the aim to determine their perceptions. Two strategic approaches, one a centralised and the other a decentralised approach, were compared. Both strategic approaches lay claim that effective by-law enforcement prevents crime and maintains social order. The perceptions of the respondents were considered against the fundamentals and claims of each approach. The findings suggest, amongst others, that the centralised approach offer particular benefits in respect of effective by-law enforcement and that the possibility of drafting specific by-laws, aimed at crime prevention, should be strongly considered.
An analysis of the measures used to control firearms in South Africa : looking back and looking forwardSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2015, pp 114 –130 (2015)More Less
From a policing point of view, the South African Police Service (SAPS) is the custodian of the Firearms Control Act (FCA) 60/2000. Accordingly, it is their responsibility for its enforcement in order to prevent and control firearm-related crimes. The fluctuations in reported violent and firearms-related crimes over the past two decades, raises a number of questions regarding the effectiveness, impact and prevention measures of the South African legislation on firearms. The aim of this article is to provide insight on how firearms have been policed over the past two decades and to suggest a firearm policing strategy to effectively control firearms in South Africa. The analysis indicates that despite compliance, the FCA experiences its own challenges that need to be continuously addressed. The primary finding of the study suggests that firearms are still not being effectively controlled. Measures, identified by a group of research participants, as well as from the literature, to improve controls are suggested in an effort to close identified gaps in the FCA, enhance enforcement and increase its impact in ensuring responsible firearm ownership.
Gun rights versus peoples' rights : a review of the struggle for stricter firearms controls in the USA - any implications for South Africa?Author Anthony MinnaarSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 2015, pp 131 –145 (2015)More Less
Since at least the early 1990s the fight for stricter firearms controls - the so-called 'Great Gun Debate' - in all states of America has been a constant ebb-and-flow between pro-control activists (mainly concerned citizens/victim's family groups) and opponents, largely led by the National Rifle Association (NRA). In the USA, over the years particular incidents of gun violence (for example the school shootings at Columbine and more recently the attack on the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina) have raised emotions on both sides. This has led to temporary stricter firearms control measures being imposed - only for them to be rescinded or watered down at a later stage. Underlying opponents' arguments to any, even watered-down, controls have been the constant refrain of the American constitutional principle of the inalienable 'right to bear arms', (with no restriction on the ownership/possession of multiple firearms) while pro-control adherents are increasingly invoking the universal principle of 'human security' inter alia 'the individual's right to safety and security' as an inalienable 'peoples right' that trumps the uncontrolled or unfettered ownership of a firearm. The American 'fight' has implications for firearms controls worldwide, since many nations, while developing their own legislation on the issue, often take their lead from developments in the USA. South Africa is no exception to this even though the Firearms Control Act 60 of 2000 goes far further than anything in place in the USA. The South African gun control debate was re-ignited with the recent public hearings in Parliament on the recommended revisions of this Act. This article examines the overall firearms controls or lack thereof in the USA and postulates whether there are implications (if any) for the proposed revisions of the South African Act.