- A-Z Publications
- Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology
- Previous Issues
- Volume 22, Issue 3, 2009
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 22, Issue 3, 2009
Volumes & issues
Volume 22, Issue 3, 2009
The new Fremantle Prison gallows and the gruesome science of hanging in Colonial Western Australia : editorialAuthor Simon AdamsSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp I –VII (2009)More Less
Hanging has a gruesome pedigree. It began in tenth century Britain as an extremely public and deliberately slow punishment. The first gallows were trees and in those days all that was needed was a strong branch and an unforgiving rope. The first victims were choked to death. The intent was to extend the suffering of the condemned for long enough to amuse the crowd and impress upon them the cruel majesty of the Law. It was this tradition of hanging that arrived in Australia with the First Fleet in 1788, and in Western Australia with Captain Stirling's initial contingent of settlers in 1829.
Author A. PembertonSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp 1 –23 (2009)More Less
The position of victims of crime has markedly improved over the past 30 years and is associated with the establishment of a unified "victim movement", a social movement which strives to improve the position of victims of crime. It is, however, questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon, particularly in view of the significant differences in the tone and policies championed by organisations representing victims' interests in the United States and the United Kingdom. These dissimilarities are particularly striking considering the similarities in the development of the criminal justice systems in the United States and the United Kingdom.
Application of spatial technology and multi-land use classes in aid of a crime management strategy : a microanalytical approachSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp 24 –42 (2009)More Less
This article serves to illustrate the utilisation of remote sensing technology, integrated with geographic information systems (GIS), which are overlaid with geo-coded crime data that provide a spatial technology basis for use as a crime management strategy. The contribution of this research to criminological science lies in the information related to the spatial distribution of human activity as represented by land-use classes and their correlation with specific crime types as well as the dynamics involved. The area falling within the borders of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality was selected as study area and covers approximately 2 200 square kilometres with 28 police precincts. The environmental and socio-economic profile of each of the 28 police precincts within Tshwane is significantly different, as are the identified growth patterns defined in terms of the relevant land-use classes. A crime analysis was done based on geo-coded crime data from 2002 to 2004, based upon the Daily Statistics for Serious Crime that was compiled by the South African Police Service (SAPS) and consists of 46 crime types. The pattern indicated very few changes or displacement except for an increase in the Akasia, Wonderboompoort and Eersterust areas. The highest numbers of incidents each year were recorded in the Pretoria Central, Sunnyside, Brooklyn and Mamelodi areas. Furthermore, four specific crime types were selected for further spatial analysis based on the availability of data collected from a victimisation survey done by the International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS) in which South Africa participated.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp 43 –62 (2009)More Less
The mass communication media in South Africa carry reports on violence in all its forms on an almost daily basis, while there are numerous examples of the wave of violence that is engulfing South Africa (SA) and impacting on our school culture. Research has shown that harassment (including peer and sexual harassment) is rife in our schools. The isolated incidents of extreme school violence and the more "bizarre" exceptions of assault and sexual violence in schools receive wide media coverage, which makes it difficult to gauge the true scope of school violence. The SA National Schools Violence Study (NSVS) surveyed 245 schools country-wide and the statistics from the NSVS as well as the examples of media reportage lay bare the general feeling of malaise which is caused by the hopelessness and helplessness resulting from violence in schools. Although the issue of violence is a government priority, it is evident that the Department of Education has little or no comprehensive data on the levels of violence within schools, while there seems to be no or very little research specifically focusing on the perceptions of student teachers on school violence. The purpose of this research was therefore to determine the perceptions among teachers in the Pretoria region as well as student teachers at the University of Pretoria (UP) In this regard with a view to providing education departments with guidelines for dealing with the related challenges.
Author H. HargovanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp 63 –87 (2009)More Less
Restorative approaches to justice have developed through practice and will probably continue to do so in future. As a consequence, no single notion or theory of restorative justice exists and there is no single process in place (Ashworth, 2002). While the South African criminal justice system has made rapid progress towards mainstreaming restorative justice, the provision of relevant restorative justice services (such victim-offender mediation, victim-offender conferencing and family group conferencing) is largely dependent on non-governmental organisations or service providers (Hargovan, 2008). In a previous edition of this journal, Skelton and Batley (2008), drew attention to the plethora of policies, research initiatives, theorising, critical analyses and emerging restorative justice jurisprudence. They urged South African criminal justice practitioners and researchers to "engage in the discovery of realistic community centred models" (Skelton & Batley, 2008). This article builds forth on that theme and describes the development and implementation of an innovative, uniquely South African model, Khulisa's Justice and Restoration Programme. This programme provides a range of restorative justice services, with a primary focus on alternative methods of dealing with crime, wrong-doing and conflict within the community. The programme receives most of its referrals from the formal criminal justice system (i.e. the Phoenix court). A steady increase in referrals from other sources, such as community members, schools and the police, however, indicates the need for expansion of the programme and the introduction of similar programmes throughout the country.
Understanding complex post-traumatic reactions to child sexual abuse : an essential requirement for competent impact assessmentsAuthor S.J. CollingsSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp 88 –97 (2009)More Less
This paper briefly examines early (pre-1990) conceptualisations of the psychological effects of child maltreatment, before proceeding to provide an overview of the complex post-traumatic perspectives on child maltreatment which has dominated contemporary understanding of the problem. The paper concludes by arguing that a comprehensive, evidence-based, understanding of complex post-traumatic reactions to child maltreatment is essential if helping professionals are to produce adequate impact statements.
In anticipation of the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa : occurrence of street robberies on Durban's "Golden Mile"Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp 98 –117 (2009)More Less
Durban's "Golden Mile" is the city's most prominent tourist attraction and contributed ± R225 million towards much needed job creation and poverty alleviation in the region during the 2007 financial year, a trend which is set to increase dramatically during the FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) 2010 Soccer World Cup, which was awarded to the Republic of South Africa. The City of Durban will host eight World Cup matches, including a semi-final at the newly designed Moses Mabhiba World Cup 2010 Stadium. The high incidence of violent crimes committed against tourists, which is also reported on in the international media, has caused the concern that if tourists perceive the beachfront to be unsafe they will be hesitant to visit Durban again, while the likelihood also exists that they might discourage other potential visitors. This paper is an attempt to provide input to the discourse on the matter based on empirical research. Much of the research on crime and tourism is founded on economic models of criminal behaviour. The current study contributes to the expanding crime and tourism literature by providing facts and accurate statistics instead of anecdotal information on violent crime and tourism, more specifically with regard to the so-called "street robberies". From the data collected and analysed, it will become evident that during 2006, 90% of the street robberies reported to Golden Mile hotel security was not documented in the form of a case docket with the SAPS. Through the use of qualitative data analysis techniques such as theming, coding and categorising, the study will also reveal that all the respondents who completed the open-ended questionnaire are of the opinion that preliminary crime scene investigation of street robberies committed against tourists on Durban's Golden Mile was, for a variety of reasons, ineffective. Finally, based on the relevant literature as well as the findings of the study, a number of recommendations will be put forward.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp 118 –138 (2009)More Less
Epidemiological data from the World Health Organisation (WHO), indicates that certain stressors, which include crime victimisation, are prevalent in many international societies - also in South Africa. Moreover, crime statistics show that crime is not only commonplace in South Africa, but that it has become normative rather than extraordinary. Victims experience certain needs following crime victimisation, amongst others, the need for supportive social interaction. One way to address the needs of victims of crime and violence is through the establishment of community-based crisis centres, such as the Sinoville Crisis Centre (SCC). The purpose of this article is to report on a qualitative research study done at the SCC and it explores the SCC counsellors' thoughts, feelings and perspectives on aspects related to its crisis intervention services. The findings, which are founded upon theoretical conceptions described in the related literature, indicate that crisis centres are often unavailable in impoverished communities. Three master themes emerged from the research interviews, inter alia that there is a paradoxical relationship constituted of salutogenesis and pathogenesis; that the counselling paradox implies that there is a cost related to caring but that counsellors could also grow through experiencing the crises of others; and, finally, that a crisis intervention centre such as the Sinoville Crisis Centre displays both strengths and weaknesses. It will be indicated that the long-term prioritisation and provision of crisis intervention services, such as the Victim Empowerment Programme (VEP), should be regarded as a government-level responsibility, but that community-based crisis centres could contribute extensively to the empowerment initiative by engaging with and becoming involved in the VEP.
Author R. SteynSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp 139 –148 (2009)More Less
A police officer (PO), by the very nature of his or her work, is exposed to many events that can cause reactions such as fear, horror, and feelings of helplessness, which may lead to the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). While some events may cause these reactions, and the resulting PTSD symptoms, others do not. A sample of 217 rural POs, from the South African Police Service (SAPS), was interviewed to establish to which potentially traumatic events they are exposed and to obtain information on which of these events they perceive as traumatic in their own lives. The results indicated that POs experience significant distress as a result of events related to the nature of their work, but more so because of relationship or separation issues. Information on the typical reactions to the traumatic events was gathered, including the PTSD symptoms which are experienced by POs. The aforementioned information is collated by reporting on the effects of exposure to multiple types of trauma (MTT), as well as multiple exposures to trauma (MET), in the development of PTSD symptoms. Although both MTT and MET correlated significantly with PTSD symptoms (r=.409, n=216, p<.01 and r=.317, n=217, p<.01), the results indicated that MTT, and not MET, predicts PTSD symptoms as reported on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (Foa, 1995). These two variables explain 19.5% of the variance in the PTSD score (p<.01), with only MTT making a significant contribution to the variance (beta=.447). Recommendations pertaining to possible strategies for the management of the mental health of Pos are also put forward.
Crimes against nature : Environmental criminology and ecological justice, Rob White (Ed.) : book reviewAuthor F.J.W. HerbigSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 22, pp 149 –150 (2009)More Less
Although this publication is predominantly aimed at the academic world, it should also appeal to those active in criminal justice, as well as criminology and law students or researchers interested in this limited, albeit growing field of criminological enquiry. Owing to the paucity of criminological publications dealing with natural resources and allied issues to date, this manuscript provides timely and much needed insights into what can essentially be viewed as a seriously neglected criminological focus area of research. The book not only effectively explores macro issues relating to environmental or ecological crime and criminology, but also succeeds in interrogating more specific and applied issues such as transnational environmental crime and environmental law enforcement.