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- Volume 23, Issue 2, 2010
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 23, Issue 2, 2010
Volumes & issues
Volume 23, Issue 2, 2010
Thoughts on a South African electronic monitoring system for managing offending behaviour : editorialSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp I –IV (2010)More Less
Electronic monitoring (EM) is widely used today in Western Europe and the United States of America. Since its advent in the United States of America in the 1980's, it has been viewed as a form of confinement and therefore, always linked to one or other form of imprisonment. Different names had been given to EM, for example, 'home detention', 'community custody' and 'curfew'.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 1 –18 (2010)More Less
In this article, the authors gauge the perceptions of student teachers on violence in primary schools and their immediate communities. Learners' exposure to mounting levels of violence and crime in South Africa in general, but more specifically in their homes and communities, affects their behaviour adversely. The data collection took the form of a written submission of the discussion of semi-structured reflective questions in a post-internship oral reflection in student teachers' internship school groups after an approximately three month long internship period in Pretoria schools. Student teachers believe that school violence impacts on learners and teachers to a large extent, often damaging the trust relationship between them. In addition, the uncertainty of teachers in dealing with incidents of violence sometimes creates the impression that they are uncaring. Students contend that measures such as workshops for all role players, as well as stricter discipline, could alleviate the problem of violence in schools and communities. The place to begin to stem the burgeoning tide of violence in society at large, lies with government.
Author V. OjakorotuSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 19 –30 (2010)More Less
Growing social, environmental, economic and political impacts of oil production remain critical in explaining the structure of conflict in many oil producing countries of Africa. Although it may be incorrect to assume that all oil producing countries in Africa are prone to violent conflict, the presence of oil resource has by no small measure shaped social and economic practices and policies that have in turn fuelled tension among key actors in the oil industry. The victims of oil related conflicts are the oil-bearing communities who suffer double tragedies as a result of various impacts of the oil industry. What is of importance to understand is the nature of oil conflict in Africa and the outcomes of such conflict. This research looks at the victims of oil conflict in the Niger Delta of Nigeria in relation to the resource curse thesis and questions if justice is possible for oil victims of the region.
Author D.T. MasiloaneSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 31 –41 (2010)More Less
Violence and intimidation of non-striking employees are usually prominent features of any strike action in South Africa. This erodes the individual's freedom to choose whether to strike or not, also affecting the safety and security of the non-striking employee during strikes. This study analyses the phenomenon of violence and intimidation during strike actions and explores limitations of policing to provide adequate security. Attempts are made to understand whether violence during a strike is usually an irrational act perpetrated by opportunistic offenders, or is it rather an outcome of a rational act designed to influence the effectiveness of the strike action? This analysis is largely based on the experiences of a group of educators, nurses and security guards in South Africa during the 2006 and 2007 wage negotiation and strike period.
A critical assessment of the constitutional mandate of the South African Police Service in accordance with criminological perspectives on crime preventionAuthor C.J. RoelofseSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 42 –60 (2010)More Less
Within the criminological perspectives of crime, this article assesses the legal mandate of the South African Police Service (SAPS) and its strategies to achieve this mandate from a planning, budgeting and staffing point of view. However, to objectively measure any performance, including that of the police, is not a straightforward matter. Within this context, this article assesses the SAPS Management's understanding and operationalisation of the mandate. To this end, three yardsticks have been selected, namely the mandate itself; secondly, strategic planning and direction; and lastly, manpower and budgeting. The assessment is done within the context of theoretical conceptions of crime reduction and control. The article argues that criminological theory does not support the generally-held opinion that the police is responsible for crime reduction and prevention, and that the deployment of more police officers is the answer for crime prevention. In fact, the mission, as stated by the SAPS and based on its mandate, and which inter alia reads : "...[to] prevent anything that may threaten the safety and security of any community and to investigate any crimes that threaten the safety and security of any community", can be called "mission impossible". The article further argues that the police should rather be mandated to combat crime and to participate in crime prevention and that each government department must be legally mandated to devise and participate in a composite crime prevention plan and budget accordingly. Results obtained from this research therefore clearly indicate that police staffing and budgets are inflated and that the strategic direction is based on an attempt to pursue an unfair mandate.
Managing the SAPS budget for fuel and oil in Kwazulu-Natal : a study of the perceptions of station commissionersSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 61 –81 (2010)More Less
Government departments in the Republic of South Africa do not have access to unlimited funds and therefore have to manage allocated financial resources effectively and efficiently. The South African Police Service (SAPS) KwaZulu-Natal Province, fuel and oil budget has been overspent by 14 million rand, on average for 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 financial book years (SAPS Annual reports for 2007/2008 and 2008/2009). The overarching aim of the current study was to contribute to more effective and efficient fuel and oil management in the SAPS KwaZulu-Natal Province by answering the following research questions and make practical recommendations based on the findings of the study : i) Are SAPS KwaZulu-Natal station commissioners adequately knowledgeable of SAPS policies and procedures in relation to fuel and oil management? ii) How do SAPS KwaZulu-Natal station commissioners perceive police officials manage fuel and oil within the SAPS compared to their privately owned vehicles? Two valid and reliable measuring instruments were developed and administered to a representative sample (66/183) of all station commissioners in the SAPS KwaZulu-Natal Province : a) A 20-item SAPS fuel and oil management knowledge test; and b) A 19-item self-report perception questionnaire that measures SAPS fuel and oil management perceptions of SAPS station commissioners. The study amongst others found that SAPS KwaZulu-Natal station commissioners believe that police officials do not find it important to treat state vehicles the same way as they treat their private vehicles. The study also found that the SAPS station commissioners that participated in the study, in general, did not have a 100% knowledge base (memory) (as required by SAPS Top Management) of SAPS Special Force Order (General) 3A of 1987 that relates to effective and efficient fuel and oil management, West Bank procedures, and other SAPS policies that guide effective and efficient management of fuel and oil in SAPS. The study amongst others recommended that all SAPS KwaZulu-Natal station commissioners and their respective subordinates be outcome-based oriented, assessed, and held accountable in terms of SAPS policies and guidelines on the effective and efficient management of fuel and oil.
Author T.S. PetrusSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 82 –93 (2010)More Less
The occurrence of witchcraft-related violence, which includes accusations of witchcraft, assault, or murder of suspected witches, and the killing of people for their body parts in order to make muti (African traditional medicine), seems to suggest that these acts possess certain characteristics of ritualisation. In most cases of such violence, there appears to be a conscious attempt by perpetrators of such violence to instil immense fear, not only in the victims of such violence, but also in the communities in which these acts occur. This article examines the relationship between witchcraft-related crime and ritualised violence in the Xhosa-speaking communities of the north-eastern part of the Eastern Cape Province, in an area often referred to as Mpondoland. It is based on the author's research into witchcraft-related violence in the region and explores how perpetrators of such violence employ rituals, not only to instil fear in communities, but also to specifically coerce them into compliance and support for the violent treatment of suspected witches.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 94 –108 (2010)More Less
The 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States of America (US), the terrorist attacks on the transport system in the United Kingdom (UK) during July 2005, as well as official commissions of inquiry into how intelligence on weapons of mass destruction (WMD) was dealt with in the UK and the US respectively, profoundly affected intelligence cooperation in the UK. International and regional imperatives, as well as the utility of effective intelligence cooperation, demands of all states to review and improve their intelligence structures to combat terrorism, organised crime and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This article explores the UK's response to identified intelligence failures and with reference to intelligence strategies, policies and practices in the UK, proposes principles for intelligence cooperation, and looks at the UK intelligence cooperation model's suitability as a benchmark for other countries, in order to comply with international and regional imperatives for intelligence cooperation. The conclusion is that the well-developed UK model in certain respects provides a benchmark for intelligence cooperation. The positive elements of the UK model include the establishment of a comprehensive business model for intelligence; community-based and intelligence-led policing; a national coordination mechanism representative of all agencies; the functioning of law enforcement on a multi-disciplinary basis, with powers of police, immigration and customs synchronised into the same agency; cooperation between investigators and prosecutors, nationally and internationally, from an early stage of investigation; and the establishment of a trusted information environment for the exchange of intelligence between civilian and crime intelligence. On the negative side, the UK model without a counter-terrorism mandate in respect of the Serious Organised Crime Agency can be criticised for not adequately addressing the linkages between organised crime and terrorism. Furthermore, effective intelligence sharing in the UK is said to remain hampered by the intelligence community's fractured organisational structure and disconnected way of work, the lack of standardised information technology and uniform procedures between different agencies. The non-utilisation of intercepts as evidence is also not conducive to crime combating.
Victimology, victim assistance and criminal justice : perspectives shared by international experts at the Inter University Centre of Dubrovnik, Otmar Hagemann, Peter Schafer and Stephanie Schmidt (Eds.) : book reviewsAuthor G.F KirchhoffSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 109 –126 (2010)More Less
This book presents a lively mix that focuses - from many angles - on victimology. It reflects the broad scope of approaches to a field that has been formed essentially through systematic work in Dubrovnik. For the past 25 years, the course in Dubrovnik has been a steady reliable center of victimological teaching and thinking. It became the galleon's figure for other regular postgraduate courses in Africa (Monash South Africa, Johannesburg) and in Asia (Tokiwa, Mito, Japan), not to forget similar courses in Salvador and Columbia. It is impossible to develop a curriculum for victimology out of all the precious contributions to this book. It is equally difficult to decide which of the contributions in this book will survive. Surviving means to be quoted by other victimologists. Surviving means finding entrance into the curriculum of victimology. One thing is certain, however : the commitment of victimologists to scientific analysis of victims, victimizations and the reaction towards both is clearer than ever. Unscientific reports from the field for the field do not have any chance of survival. It seems to be clear too that new verbal contributions (such as the term "victimhood") are neither necessary nor clarifying. A strong rootedness of the contributions in the existing traditions of victimology and in the contributing sciences is needed. Only if we know and state on whose shoulders we stand, will we be able to further develop victimology. Solo ballet exercises will not do it.
Author M. MarksSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 115 –123 (2010)More Less
When I began researching the police and teaching courses on policing some ten years ago, Robert Reiner's The Politics of the Police was one of my work bibles. I had no training in criminology or police studies and this book focused my mind on how to think sociologically about the police. It provided me with a critical view of what the police has been, and can realistically be in the contemporary world. As a sociologist (and social worker) by training, this book made my mundane everyday understanding of the police (and policing) come alive through the uncovering of the interconnectedness of the police with politics, economics and wider social dynamics. My early reading of Reiner's book sensitised me to how important it is to comprehend the public police as limited yet powerful social actors in a highly complex social world.
Author Simon AdamsSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 124 –126 (2010)More Less
Some years ago, a wayward teenage relative of mine was "joy riding" in Twinbrook, West Belfast. The driver of the stolen car lost control at high speed. The car left the road, crashed and rolled, before ending up on its roof. The crash seriously injured an innocent pedestrian. My relative was partially disabled in the crash, but two other passengers escaped with minor injuries. A few days later, the IRA apprehended the young miscreants on the housing estate, taking them away from their families for interrogation. Both were shot in the legs as punishment. Meanwhile, my young relative was given a serious warning by the IRA to desist from his "anti-social behaviour", but because of his debilitating injuries, he was not shot. A short time afterwards, the police detained several men from Twinbrook, whom it claimed had been involved in shooting the two teenage car thieves. One of the alleged members of the IRA punishment squad was another relative of mine, who is also related to the young man disabled in the car crash. In general, the community supported the accused IRA members (who were later released because of lack of evidence) and ostracised the "joy riders". Such was life, crime and justice in Northern Ireland.